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Effects of Different Types of Cognitive Training on Cognitive Function, Brain Structure, and Driving Safety in Senior Daily Drivers: A Pilot Study.

Nozawa T, Taki Y, Kanno A, Akimoto Y, Ihara M, Yokoyama R, Kotozaki Y, Nouchi R, Sekiguchi A, Takeuchi H, Miyauchi CM, Ogawa T, Goto T, Sunda T, Shimizu T, Tozuka E, Hirose S, Nanbu T, Kawashima R - Behav Neurol (2015)

Bottom Line: For cognitive function, only Group V showed significant improvements in processing speed and working memory.For driving safety, Group V showed significant improvements both in the driving aptitude test and in the on-road evaluations.The results support the effectiveness of the onboard training program in enhancing the elderly's abilities to drive safely and the potential advantages of a multimodal training approach.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Smart Ageing International Research Center, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Background: Increasing proportion of the elderly in the driving population raises the importance of assuring their safety. We explored the effects of three different types of cognitive training on the cognitive function, brain structure, and driving safety of the elderly.

Methods: Thirty-seven healthy elderly daily drivers were randomly assigned to one of three training groups: Group V trained in a vehicle with a newly developed onboard cognitive training program, Group P trained with a similar program but on a personal computer, and Group C trained to solve a crossword puzzle. Before and after the 8-week training period, they underwent neuropsychological tests, structural brain magnetic resonance imaging, and driving safety tests.

Results: For cognitive function, only Group V showed significant improvements in processing speed and working memory. For driving safety, Group V showed significant improvements both in the driving aptitude test and in the on-road evaluations. Group P showed no significant improvements in either test, and Group C showed significant improvements in the driving aptitude but not in the on-road evaluations.

Conclusion: The results support the effectiveness of the onboard training program in enhancing the elderly's abilities to drive safely and the potential advantages of a multimodal training approach.

No MeSH data available.


Group V showed significant rGMV increases in the left inferior frontal gyrus (a). Group P showed significant rGMV increases in the right middle frontal gyrus and the left superior occipital gyrus (b). Group C showed significant rGMV increases in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (c) and significant rGMV decreases in the precuneus, the medial cerebellum, and the right caudate (d). The colored clusters show regions with rGMV changes that were significant with a family-wise error corrected P < 0.05 at the nonisotropic adjusted cluster level [59], with an underlying voxel level of P < 0.001.
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fig3: Group V showed significant rGMV increases in the left inferior frontal gyrus (a). Group P showed significant rGMV increases in the right middle frontal gyrus and the left superior occipital gyrus (b). Group C showed significant rGMV increases in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (c) and significant rGMV decreases in the precuneus, the medial cerebellum, and the right caudate (d). The colored clusters show regions with rGMV changes that were significant with a family-wise error corrected P < 0.05 at the nonisotropic adjusted cluster level [59], with an underlying voxel level of P < 0.001.

Mentions: With the VBM analysis of the one-sample t-tests of the (Post − Pre) differences in the images in each training group, we found several significant rGMV changes in each group. In Group V, significant rGMV increases were observed in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) adjacent to the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; t = 8.33, P = 0.033; Figure 3(a)). In Group P, significant rGMV increases were observed in the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG; t = 18.24, P = 0.003) and the left superior occipital gyrus (SOG; t = 7.25, P = 0.025; Figure 3(b)). In Group C, significant rGMV increases were observed in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; t = 8.70, P = 0.033; Figure 3(c)) and significant rGMV decreases were observed in the precuneus (t = 22.65, P = 0.002), the medial cerebellum (t = 12.10, P = 0.002), and the right caudate (t = 8.76, P = 0.039; Figure 3(d)). No significant changes were observed for the other within-group contrasts.


Effects of Different Types of Cognitive Training on Cognitive Function, Brain Structure, and Driving Safety in Senior Daily Drivers: A Pilot Study.

Nozawa T, Taki Y, Kanno A, Akimoto Y, Ihara M, Yokoyama R, Kotozaki Y, Nouchi R, Sekiguchi A, Takeuchi H, Miyauchi CM, Ogawa T, Goto T, Sunda T, Shimizu T, Tozuka E, Hirose S, Nanbu T, Kawashima R - Behav Neurol (2015)

Group V showed significant rGMV increases in the left inferior frontal gyrus (a). Group P showed significant rGMV increases in the right middle frontal gyrus and the left superior occipital gyrus (b). Group C showed significant rGMV increases in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (c) and significant rGMV decreases in the precuneus, the medial cerebellum, and the right caudate (d). The colored clusters show regions with rGMV changes that were significant with a family-wise error corrected P < 0.05 at the nonisotropic adjusted cluster level [59], with an underlying voxel level of P < 0.001.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig3: Group V showed significant rGMV increases in the left inferior frontal gyrus (a). Group P showed significant rGMV increases in the right middle frontal gyrus and the left superior occipital gyrus (b). Group C showed significant rGMV increases in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (c) and significant rGMV decreases in the precuneus, the medial cerebellum, and the right caudate (d). The colored clusters show regions with rGMV changes that were significant with a family-wise error corrected P < 0.05 at the nonisotropic adjusted cluster level [59], with an underlying voxel level of P < 0.001.
Mentions: With the VBM analysis of the one-sample t-tests of the (Post − Pre) differences in the images in each training group, we found several significant rGMV changes in each group. In Group V, significant rGMV increases were observed in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) adjacent to the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; t = 8.33, P = 0.033; Figure 3(a)). In Group P, significant rGMV increases were observed in the right middle frontal gyrus (MFG; t = 18.24, P = 0.003) and the left superior occipital gyrus (SOG; t = 7.25, P = 0.025; Figure 3(b)). In Group C, significant rGMV increases were observed in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; t = 8.70, P = 0.033; Figure 3(c)) and significant rGMV decreases were observed in the precuneus (t = 22.65, P = 0.002), the medial cerebellum (t = 12.10, P = 0.002), and the right caudate (t = 8.76, P = 0.039; Figure 3(d)). No significant changes were observed for the other within-group contrasts.

Bottom Line: For cognitive function, only Group V showed significant improvements in processing speed and working memory.For driving safety, Group V showed significant improvements both in the driving aptitude test and in the on-road evaluations.The results support the effectiveness of the onboard training program in enhancing the elderly's abilities to drive safely and the potential advantages of a multimodal training approach.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Smart Ageing International Research Center, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575, Japan.

ABSTRACT

Background: Increasing proportion of the elderly in the driving population raises the importance of assuring their safety. We explored the effects of three different types of cognitive training on the cognitive function, brain structure, and driving safety of the elderly.

Methods: Thirty-seven healthy elderly daily drivers were randomly assigned to one of three training groups: Group V trained in a vehicle with a newly developed onboard cognitive training program, Group P trained with a similar program but on a personal computer, and Group C trained to solve a crossword puzzle. Before and after the 8-week training period, they underwent neuropsychological tests, structural brain magnetic resonance imaging, and driving safety tests.

Results: For cognitive function, only Group V showed significant improvements in processing speed and working memory. For driving safety, Group V showed significant improvements both in the driving aptitude test and in the on-road evaluations. Group P showed no significant improvements in either test, and Group C showed significant improvements in the driving aptitude but not in the on-road evaluations.

Conclusion: The results support the effectiveness of the onboard training program in enhancing the elderly's abilities to drive safely and the potential advantages of a multimodal training approach.

No MeSH data available.