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A novel method for extraction of a proteinous coagulant from Plantago ovata seeds for water treatment purposes.

Ramavandi B, Hashemi S, Kafaei R - MethodsX (2015)

Bottom Line: Several chemicals have been applied in the process of coagulant extraction from herbal seeds, and the best extraction has been obtained in the presence of KCl or NaNO3[1-3], and NaCl [4].In these methods the salts, which have a one-valance metal (Na(+) and K(+)), are deposited in the internal structure and the pore of the coagulant, and may be useful for the coagulation/flocculation process.Therefore, the modified procedure was better than the older one for removal of turbidity and harness from the contaminated water.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Health Engineering Department, Faculty of Health, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr 7518759577, Iran.

ABSTRACT
Several chemicals have been applied in the process of coagulant extraction from herbal seeds, and the best extraction has been obtained in the presence of KCl or NaNO3[1-3], and NaCl [4]. However, the main challenge posed to these methods of coagulant extraction is their relatively low efficiency for water treatment purposes and the formation of dissolved organic matter during the treatment process. In these methods the salts, which have a one-valance metal (Na(+) and K(+)), are deposited in the internal structure and the pore of the coagulant, and may be useful for the coagulation/flocculation process. In this research, we found that modified methods produced more dense protein. Therefore, the modified procedure was better than the older one for removal of turbidity and harness from the contaminated water. Here we describe a method where: •According to the Hardy-Schulze rule, we applied the Fe(3+) ions instead of Na(+) and K(+) for the extraction of protein from Plantago ovata seeds.•The method was narrowed to extract protein by ethanol (defatting) and ammonium acetate and CM-Sepharose (protein extraction).•Two consecutive elutriations of crude extract was directly performed using 0.025-M FeCl3 and 0.05-M FeCl3 according to the basis of the ion-exchange processes.

No MeSH data available.


Effects of the coagulant dose on water turbidity removal and DOC change in treated water.
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fig0015: Effects of the coagulant dose on water turbidity removal and DOC change in treated water.

Mentions: The coagulation process is usually a surface phenomenon; therefore, the performance a coagulant can be significantly influenced by the surface charge due to the mass of the coagulant. Thus, the optimization of the coagulant dose and the best-required mass of the coagulant for the scale-up and design of large-scale equipment is economically necessary. Hence, the effect of coagulant dose on the water turbidity removal was considered at the water pH of 7; the obtained results are plotted in Fig. 3 from the perspective of the turbidity removal efficiency and change of the DOC of the treated water. As can be inferred from Fig. 3, for the two lowest coagulant dosages, i.e., 0.25–0.5 mg/L, the final turbidity was low, less than 5 NTU, the maximum admissible concentration according to European directive [8] for drinking water. Further, the results of the effect of coagulant dose on the turbidity removal exhibited the various trends as follow: First, the removal efficiency of water turbidity decreased from 99% to 26% as the coagulant dose increased from 0.25 to 1 mg/L. Then, the turbidity removal efficiency increased with an increase in the coagulant dose from 1 to 2 mg/L. Finally, the turbidity removal efficiency decreased when the coagulant dose was more than 2 mg/L (Fig. 3). This phenomenon could be explained by a couple of reasons. On one hand, at a lower coagulant concentration, its long chain adsorbed on the surface of one colloid particle was adsorbed onto the surfaces of the others, and therefore two or more particles aggregated by bridging flocculation. However, when the coagulant dose was increased to a certain value (here, 1 mg/L), the adsorbed aggregation completely covered the particle surface and prevented the particles from flocculating. On the other hand, under experimental conditions and pH = 7 < pH of zero point charge of the coagulant (that equal to 7.9), the coagulant was positively charged as the functional groups bonded with hydrogen ions. Therefore, when the coagulant dose was increased to 2 mg/L the positively charged coagulant adsorbed on the surface of the negatively charged colloid particles by charge neutralization mechanism and resulting a better coagulation effect.


A novel method for extraction of a proteinous coagulant from Plantago ovata seeds for water treatment purposes.

Ramavandi B, Hashemi S, Kafaei R - MethodsX (2015)

Effects of the coagulant dose on water turbidity removal and DOC change in treated water.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487925&req=5

fig0015: Effects of the coagulant dose on water turbidity removal and DOC change in treated water.
Mentions: The coagulation process is usually a surface phenomenon; therefore, the performance a coagulant can be significantly influenced by the surface charge due to the mass of the coagulant. Thus, the optimization of the coagulant dose and the best-required mass of the coagulant for the scale-up and design of large-scale equipment is economically necessary. Hence, the effect of coagulant dose on the water turbidity removal was considered at the water pH of 7; the obtained results are plotted in Fig. 3 from the perspective of the turbidity removal efficiency and change of the DOC of the treated water. As can be inferred from Fig. 3, for the two lowest coagulant dosages, i.e., 0.25–0.5 mg/L, the final turbidity was low, less than 5 NTU, the maximum admissible concentration according to European directive [8] for drinking water. Further, the results of the effect of coagulant dose on the turbidity removal exhibited the various trends as follow: First, the removal efficiency of water turbidity decreased from 99% to 26% as the coagulant dose increased from 0.25 to 1 mg/L. Then, the turbidity removal efficiency increased with an increase in the coagulant dose from 1 to 2 mg/L. Finally, the turbidity removal efficiency decreased when the coagulant dose was more than 2 mg/L (Fig. 3). This phenomenon could be explained by a couple of reasons. On one hand, at a lower coagulant concentration, its long chain adsorbed on the surface of one colloid particle was adsorbed onto the surfaces of the others, and therefore two or more particles aggregated by bridging flocculation. However, when the coagulant dose was increased to a certain value (here, 1 mg/L), the adsorbed aggregation completely covered the particle surface and prevented the particles from flocculating. On the other hand, under experimental conditions and pH = 7 < pH of zero point charge of the coagulant (that equal to 7.9), the coagulant was positively charged as the functional groups bonded with hydrogen ions. Therefore, when the coagulant dose was increased to 2 mg/L the positively charged coagulant adsorbed on the surface of the negatively charged colloid particles by charge neutralization mechanism and resulting a better coagulation effect.

Bottom Line: Several chemicals have been applied in the process of coagulant extraction from herbal seeds, and the best extraction has been obtained in the presence of KCl or NaNO3[1-3], and NaCl [4].In these methods the salts, which have a one-valance metal (Na(+) and K(+)), are deposited in the internal structure and the pore of the coagulant, and may be useful for the coagulation/flocculation process.Therefore, the modified procedure was better than the older one for removal of turbidity and harness from the contaminated water.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Health Engineering Department, Faculty of Health, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr 7518759577, Iran.

ABSTRACT
Several chemicals have been applied in the process of coagulant extraction from herbal seeds, and the best extraction has been obtained in the presence of KCl or NaNO3[1-3], and NaCl [4]. However, the main challenge posed to these methods of coagulant extraction is their relatively low efficiency for water treatment purposes and the formation of dissolved organic matter during the treatment process. In these methods the salts, which have a one-valance metal (Na(+) and K(+)), are deposited in the internal structure and the pore of the coagulant, and may be useful for the coagulation/flocculation process. In this research, we found that modified methods produced more dense protein. Therefore, the modified procedure was better than the older one for removal of turbidity and harness from the contaminated water. Here we describe a method where: •According to the Hardy-Schulze rule, we applied the Fe(3+) ions instead of Na(+) and K(+) for the extraction of protein from Plantago ovata seeds.•The method was narrowed to extract protein by ethanol (defatting) and ammonium acetate and CM-Sepharose (protein extraction).•Two consecutive elutriations of crude extract was directly performed using 0.025-M FeCl3 and 0.05-M FeCl3 according to the basis of the ion-exchange processes.

No MeSH data available.