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A novel method for extraction of a proteinous coagulant from Plantago ovata seeds for water treatment purposes.

Ramavandi B, Hashemi S, Kafaei R - MethodsX (2015)

Bottom Line: In this research, we found that modified methods produced more dense protein.Therefore, the modified procedure was better than the older one for removal of turbidity and harness from the contaminated water.Here we describe a method where: •According to the Hardy-Schulze rule, we applied the Fe(3+) ions instead of Na(+) and K(+) for the extraction of protein from Plantago ovata seeds.•The method was narrowed to extract protein by ethanol (defatting) and ammonium acetate and CM-Sepharose (protein extraction).•Two consecutive elutriations of crude extract was directly performed using 0.025-M FeCl3 and 0.05-M FeCl3 according to the basis of the ion-exchange processes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Health Engineering Department, Faculty of Health, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr 7518759577, Iran.

ABSTRACT
Several chemicals have been applied in the process of coagulant extraction from herbal seeds, and the best extraction has been obtained in the presence of KCl or NaNO3[1-3], and NaCl [4]. However, the main challenge posed to these methods of coagulant extraction is their relatively low efficiency for water treatment purposes and the formation of dissolved organic matter during the treatment process. In these methods the salts, which have a one-valance metal (Na(+) and K(+)), are deposited in the internal structure and the pore of the coagulant, and may be useful for the coagulation/flocculation process. In this research, we found that modified methods produced more dense protein. Therefore, the modified procedure was better than the older one for removal of turbidity and harness from the contaminated water. Here we describe a method where: •According to the Hardy-Schulze rule, we applied the Fe(3+) ions instead of Na(+) and K(+) for the extraction of protein from Plantago ovata seeds.•The method was narrowed to extract protein by ethanol (defatting) and ammonium acetate and CM-Sepharose (protein extraction).•Two consecutive elutriations of crude extract was directly performed using 0.025-M FeCl3 and 0.05-M FeCl3 according to the basis of the ion-exchange processes.

No MeSH data available.


The SEM image of sludge after water turbidity removal by the coagulant extracted from Plantago ovata seeds.
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fig0005: The SEM image of sludge after water turbidity removal by the coagulant extracted from Plantago ovata seeds.

Mentions: The extracted coagulant was applied for removing of turbidity from water. Here, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs of the settled floc (sludge) during water treatment by the coagulant and the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the extracted coagulant are discussed. From the SEM micrographs (Fig. 1), it is clear that the sludge after the water treatment with extracted protein are hard and sturdy. The honeycomb-like structure, with small colloidal particles entrapped in it, might indicate the contribution of the sweep flocculation mechanism for the removal of colloidal particles in the water mixture. The FTIR spectra of extracted protein presented in Fig. 2 indicates several main peaks at 3410, 2920, 1604, and 1000 cm−1 on the spectra which corresponds to —OH groups, —CH groups, C000000000000000000000000000000000000111111111111000000000000111111111111000000000000000000000000000000000000O bands, and —OCH3 groups [6,7]. These active groups on the surface of extracted proteinous coagulant may be involved in turbidity removal from waters. The chemical composition of the sludge and fresh extracted coagulant is given in Table 1. Among various elements, carbon was found to be dominant in the sludge. Regarding to polysaccharide [Cn(H2O)m], fatty acids [CH3—(CH2)n—COOH], and protein general formula [RCH(NH2)COOH], the obtained coagulant could be neither polysaccharide nor fatty acid as it contained N. Also, regarding to mentioned formula, the polysaccharides contain high amount of oxygen rather than proteins and fatty acids, so the coagulant structure could not be made from polysaccharide. Further, some amino acids such as met- and cys-amino acids contain S, thus presence of S in the structure of coagulant might be another reason for proteinous of the extracted coagulant. However, low values of P may be due to phospholipids acids in the extracted coagulant. The proteins namely metallo-protein contain metals such as Fe, however we modified the crude extract with FeCl3. Na and other such metal is naturally presented in plant seeds. Thus, it can be concluded that the extracted coagulant is majority protein and minority phospholipids acids.


A novel method for extraction of a proteinous coagulant from Plantago ovata seeds for water treatment purposes.

Ramavandi B, Hashemi S, Kafaei R - MethodsX (2015)

The SEM image of sludge after water turbidity removal by the coagulant extracted from Plantago ovata seeds.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487925&req=5

fig0005: The SEM image of sludge after water turbidity removal by the coagulant extracted from Plantago ovata seeds.
Mentions: The extracted coagulant was applied for removing of turbidity from water. Here, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs of the settled floc (sludge) during water treatment by the coagulant and the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the extracted coagulant are discussed. From the SEM micrographs (Fig. 1), it is clear that the sludge after the water treatment with extracted protein are hard and sturdy. The honeycomb-like structure, with small colloidal particles entrapped in it, might indicate the contribution of the sweep flocculation mechanism for the removal of colloidal particles in the water mixture. The FTIR spectra of extracted protein presented in Fig. 2 indicates several main peaks at 3410, 2920, 1604, and 1000 cm−1 on the spectra which corresponds to —OH groups, —CH groups, C000000000000000000000000000000000000111111111111000000000000111111111111000000000000000000000000000000000000O bands, and —OCH3 groups [6,7]. These active groups on the surface of extracted proteinous coagulant may be involved in turbidity removal from waters. The chemical composition of the sludge and fresh extracted coagulant is given in Table 1. Among various elements, carbon was found to be dominant in the sludge. Regarding to polysaccharide [Cn(H2O)m], fatty acids [CH3—(CH2)n—COOH], and protein general formula [RCH(NH2)COOH], the obtained coagulant could be neither polysaccharide nor fatty acid as it contained N. Also, regarding to mentioned formula, the polysaccharides contain high amount of oxygen rather than proteins and fatty acids, so the coagulant structure could not be made from polysaccharide. Further, some amino acids such as met- and cys-amino acids contain S, thus presence of S in the structure of coagulant might be another reason for proteinous of the extracted coagulant. However, low values of P may be due to phospholipids acids in the extracted coagulant. The proteins namely metallo-protein contain metals such as Fe, however we modified the crude extract with FeCl3. Na and other such metal is naturally presented in plant seeds. Thus, it can be concluded that the extracted coagulant is majority protein and minority phospholipids acids.

Bottom Line: In this research, we found that modified methods produced more dense protein.Therefore, the modified procedure was better than the older one for removal of turbidity and harness from the contaminated water.Here we describe a method where: •According to the Hardy-Schulze rule, we applied the Fe(3+) ions instead of Na(+) and K(+) for the extraction of protein from Plantago ovata seeds.•The method was narrowed to extract protein by ethanol (defatting) and ammonium acetate and CM-Sepharose (protein extraction).•Two consecutive elutriations of crude extract was directly performed using 0.025-M FeCl3 and 0.05-M FeCl3 according to the basis of the ion-exchange processes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Health Engineering Department, Faculty of Health, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr 7518759577, Iran.

ABSTRACT
Several chemicals have been applied in the process of coagulant extraction from herbal seeds, and the best extraction has been obtained in the presence of KCl or NaNO3[1-3], and NaCl [4]. However, the main challenge posed to these methods of coagulant extraction is their relatively low efficiency for water treatment purposes and the formation of dissolved organic matter during the treatment process. In these methods the salts, which have a one-valance metal (Na(+) and K(+)), are deposited in the internal structure and the pore of the coagulant, and may be useful for the coagulation/flocculation process. In this research, we found that modified methods produced more dense protein. Therefore, the modified procedure was better than the older one for removal of turbidity and harness from the contaminated water. Here we describe a method where: •According to the Hardy-Schulze rule, we applied the Fe(3+) ions instead of Na(+) and K(+) for the extraction of protein from Plantago ovata seeds.•The method was narrowed to extract protein by ethanol (defatting) and ammonium acetate and CM-Sepharose (protein extraction).•Two consecutive elutriations of crude extract was directly performed using 0.025-M FeCl3 and 0.05-M FeCl3 according to the basis of the ion-exchange processes.

No MeSH data available.