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Combining standard clinical methods with PCR showed improved diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematological malignancies and prolonged neutropenia.

Paholcsek M, Fidler G, Konya J, Rejto L, Mehes G, Bukta E, Loeffler J, Biro S - BMC Infect. Dis. (2015)

Bottom Line: Sera were successively screened for galactomannan antigen and for Aspergillus fumigatus specific nucleic acid targets.Although bronchoalveolar lavage proved negative in 93 % of controls it did not detect IPA in 86 % of the cases.The data from this pilot-study demonstrate that the consideration of standard clinical methods combined with biomarker testing improves the capacity to make early and more accurate diagnostic decisions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Medicine, Department of Human Genetics, University of Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98, H-4032, Debrecen, Hungary. paholcsek.melinda@med.unideb.hu.

ABSTRACT

Background: We assessed the diagnostic value of standard clinical methods and combined biomarker testing (galactomannan assay and polymerase chain reaction screening) in a prospective case-control study to detect invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematological malignancies and prolonged neutropenia.

Methods: In this observational study 162 biomarker analyses were performed on samples from 27 febrile neutropenic episodes. Sera were successively screened for galactomannan antigen and for Aspergillus fumigatus specific nucleic acid targets. Furthermore thoracic computed tomography scanning was performed along with bronchoscopy with lavage when clinically indicated. Patients were retrospectively stratified to define a case-group with "proven" or "probable" invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (25.93 %) and a control-group of patients with no evidence for of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (74.07 %). In 44.44 % of episodes fever ceased in response to antibiotic treatment (group II). Empirical antifungal therapy was administered for episodes with persistent or relapsing fever (group I). 48.15 % of patients died during the study period. Postmortem histology was pursued in 53.85 % of fatalities.

Results: Concordant negative galactomannan and computed tomography supported by a polymerase chain reaction assay were shown to have the highest discriminatory power to exclude invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 6 cases of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and in 15 controls. Although bronchoalveolar lavage proved negative in 93 % of controls it did not detect IPA in 86 % of the cases. Remarkably post mortem histology convincingly supported the presence of Aspergillus hyphae in lung tissue from a single case which had consecutive positive polymerase chain reaction assay results but was misdiagnosed by both computed tomography and consistently negative galactomannan assay results. For the galactomannan enzyme-immunoassay the diagnostic odds ratio was 15.33 and for the polymerase chain reaction assay it was 28.67. According to Cohen's kappa our in-house polymerase chain reaction method showed a fair agreement with the galactomannan immunoassay. Combined analysis of the results from the Aspergillus galactomannan enzyme immunoassay together with those generated by our polymerase chain reaction assay led to no misdiagnoses in the control group.

Conclusion: The data from this pilot-study demonstrate that the consideration of standard clinical methods combined with biomarker testing improves the capacity to make early and more accurate diagnostic decisions.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Diagnostic performance (receiver operating characteristic curves) for Aspergillus GM-EIA and facC-PCR methods. ROC curve illustrating the diagnostic performance of GM-EIA and facC-PCR at different discriminatory thresholds by plotting true positives (sensitivity) against false positives (1-specificty)
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Fig3: Diagnostic performance (receiver operating characteristic curves) for Aspergillus GM-EIA and facC-PCR methods. ROC curve illustrating the diagnostic performance of GM-EIA and facC-PCR at different discriminatory thresholds by plotting true positives (sensitivity) against false positives (1-specificty)

Mentions: Area under the ROC curve (AUC) was estimated for both classifiers; GM-EIA and facC-PCR. Values represent for GM-EIA a fair while for facC-PCR a good discriminatory property. The area under the ROC-curve (AUC) for GM-EIA was 0.7283 (95 % CI 0.6031-0.8535); P value of < 0.0012 ± 0.0639 while that for the facC-PCR was 0.8004 (95 % CI 0.6976-0.9031); P value of < 0.0001 ± 0.05243. ROC curves with the calculated AUCs are shown in (Fig. 3).Fig. 3


Combining standard clinical methods with PCR showed improved diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematological malignancies and prolonged neutropenia.

Paholcsek M, Fidler G, Konya J, Rejto L, Mehes G, Bukta E, Loeffler J, Biro S - BMC Infect. Dis. (2015)

Diagnostic performance (receiver operating characteristic curves) for Aspergillus GM-EIA and facC-PCR methods. ROC curve illustrating the diagnostic performance of GM-EIA and facC-PCR at different discriminatory thresholds by plotting true positives (sensitivity) against false positives (1-specificty)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487853&req=5

Fig3: Diagnostic performance (receiver operating characteristic curves) for Aspergillus GM-EIA and facC-PCR methods. ROC curve illustrating the diagnostic performance of GM-EIA and facC-PCR at different discriminatory thresholds by plotting true positives (sensitivity) against false positives (1-specificty)
Mentions: Area under the ROC curve (AUC) was estimated for both classifiers; GM-EIA and facC-PCR. Values represent for GM-EIA a fair while for facC-PCR a good discriminatory property. The area under the ROC-curve (AUC) for GM-EIA was 0.7283 (95 % CI 0.6031-0.8535); P value of < 0.0012 ± 0.0639 while that for the facC-PCR was 0.8004 (95 % CI 0.6976-0.9031); P value of < 0.0001 ± 0.05243. ROC curves with the calculated AUCs are shown in (Fig. 3).Fig. 3

Bottom Line: Sera were successively screened for galactomannan antigen and for Aspergillus fumigatus specific nucleic acid targets.Although bronchoalveolar lavage proved negative in 93 % of controls it did not detect IPA in 86 % of the cases.The data from this pilot-study demonstrate that the consideration of standard clinical methods combined with biomarker testing improves the capacity to make early and more accurate diagnostic decisions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Medicine, Department of Human Genetics, University of Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98, H-4032, Debrecen, Hungary. paholcsek.melinda@med.unideb.hu.

ABSTRACT

Background: We assessed the diagnostic value of standard clinical methods and combined biomarker testing (galactomannan assay and polymerase chain reaction screening) in a prospective case-control study to detect invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with hematological malignancies and prolonged neutropenia.

Methods: In this observational study 162 biomarker analyses were performed on samples from 27 febrile neutropenic episodes. Sera were successively screened for galactomannan antigen and for Aspergillus fumigatus specific nucleic acid targets. Furthermore thoracic computed tomography scanning was performed along with bronchoscopy with lavage when clinically indicated. Patients were retrospectively stratified to define a case-group with "proven" or "probable" invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (25.93 %) and a control-group of patients with no evidence for of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (74.07 %). In 44.44 % of episodes fever ceased in response to antibiotic treatment (group II). Empirical antifungal therapy was administered for episodes with persistent or relapsing fever (group I). 48.15 % of patients died during the study period. Postmortem histology was pursued in 53.85 % of fatalities.

Results: Concordant negative galactomannan and computed tomography supported by a polymerase chain reaction assay were shown to have the highest discriminatory power to exclude invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 6 cases of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and in 15 controls. Although bronchoalveolar lavage proved negative in 93 % of controls it did not detect IPA in 86 % of the cases. Remarkably post mortem histology convincingly supported the presence of Aspergillus hyphae in lung tissue from a single case which had consecutive positive polymerase chain reaction assay results but was misdiagnosed by both computed tomography and consistently negative galactomannan assay results. For the galactomannan enzyme-immunoassay the diagnostic odds ratio was 15.33 and for the polymerase chain reaction assay it was 28.67. According to Cohen's kappa our in-house polymerase chain reaction method showed a fair agreement with the galactomannan immunoassay. Combined analysis of the results from the Aspergillus galactomannan enzyme immunoassay together with those generated by our polymerase chain reaction assay led to no misdiagnoses in the control group.

Conclusion: The data from this pilot-study demonstrate that the consideration of standard clinical methods combined with biomarker testing improves the capacity to make early and more accurate diagnostic decisions.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus