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Mechanisms of gastroprotection of methanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum leaves.

Zakaria ZA, Balan T, Mamat SS, Mohtarrudin N, Kek TL, Salleh MZ - BMC Complement Altern Med (2015)

Bottom Line: The involvement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and sulfhydryl (SH) compounds in the gastroprotective effect of MEMM were also measured.MEMM inhibited the lipoxygenase (LOX) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities with the highest affinity for the former while quercitrin showed high affinity for XO activity.MEMM exhibited a gastroprotective activity due partly to the presence of quercitrin, its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and via the modulation of NO and SH groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Halal Product Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. dr_zaz@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Melastoma malabathricum L. (Melastomaceae) is a small shrub with various medicinal uses. The present study was carried out to determine the gastroprotective mechanisms of methanol extract of M. malabathricum leaves (MEMM) in rats.

Methods: The extract's mechanisms of gastroprotection (50, 250, 500 mg/kg) were studied using the pylorus-ligation in rat model wherein volume, pH, free and total acidity of gastric juice, and gastric wall mucus content were determined. The involvement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and sulfhydryl (SH) compounds in the gastroprotective effect of MEMM were also measured. MEMM was subjected to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and phytochemical analysis and HPLC profiling.

Results: MEMM contained various phyto-constituents with quercitrin being identified as part of them. MEMM and quercitrin: i) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the volume and acidity of gastric juice while increasing the pH and gastric wall mucus content.; ii) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the level of SOD, GTP and GTR while significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the level of CAT, MPO and TBARS activities.; iii) exerted gastroprotective activity when assessed using the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer assay, which was reversed by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; an inhibitor of NO synthase) and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM; a sulfhydryl (SH) blocker). MEMM inhibited the lipoxygenase (LOX) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities with the highest affinity for the former while quercitrin showed high affinity for XO activity.

Conclusions: MEMM exhibited a gastroprotective activity due partly to the presence of quercitrin, its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and via the modulation of NO and SH groups.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

HPLC profile of MEMM at the wavelength 254 nm. A. HPLC analysis of MEMM at wavelength 254 nm shows 7 major peaks that were clearly separated at the retention time (RT) of 14.355, 18.146, 18.575, 18.894, 19.395, 21.047, and 23.657 min. B: Further HPLC analysis was carried out to determine the range of λmax value of the 7 respective peaks detected in MEMM. The chromatogram demonstrates that the λmax value for the six respective peaks falls in the regions of 206.1-279.1, 217.8-273.2, 219.0, 217.8-269.7, 254.3-357.7 and 255.5-349.4 nm, respectively, suggesting, in part the presence of flavonoid-based compounds. Comparison between chromatogram of the standard flavonoid with the chromatogram of MEMM at 300 nm showed the possible presence of quercitrin, which corresponds to peak 7.C: Comparison between HPLC chromatogram of MEMM and quercitrin at 300 nm shows that quercitrin was present in MEMM. The peak that was produced by quercitrin corresponds to peak 7 of MEMM.
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Fig1: HPLC profile of MEMM at the wavelength 254 nm. A. HPLC analysis of MEMM at wavelength 254 nm shows 7 major peaks that were clearly separated at the retention time (RT) of 14.355, 18.146, 18.575, 18.894, 19.395, 21.047, and 23.657 min. B: Further HPLC analysis was carried out to determine the range of λmax value of the 7 respective peaks detected in MEMM. The chromatogram demonstrates that the λmax value for the six respective peaks falls in the regions of 206.1-279.1, 217.8-273.2, 219.0, 217.8-269.7, 254.3-357.7 and 255.5-349.4 nm, respectively, suggesting, in part the presence of flavonoid-based compounds. Comparison between chromatogram of the standard flavonoid with the chromatogram of MEMM at 300 nm showed the possible presence of quercitrin, which corresponds to peak 7.C: Comparison between HPLC chromatogram of MEMM and quercitrin at 300 nm shows that quercitrin was present in MEMM. The peak that was produced by quercitrin corresponds to peak 7 of MEMM.

Mentions: The phytochemicals analysis of MEMM was carried out using the HPLC method and following several trials at different wavelengths, the phytochemicals profile of MEMM was best isolated at the wavelength of 300 nm (Figure 1A). At the wavelength of 300 nm, 7 major peaks were clearly separated from the MEMM at the retention time (RT) of 14.355, 18.146, 18.575, 18.894, 19.395, 21.047, and 23.657 min. In order to predict the class of compounds present in MEMM, further analysis were carried out to determine the range of λmax value of the seven peaks. As can be seen in Figure 1B, the λmax value for the four peaks falls in the regions of 206.1-279.1, 217.8-273.2, 219.8-269.7, 219.0-349.4, 254.3-357.7 and 255.5-349.4 nm, respectively. An attempt to determine the presence of some of the well-known flavonoids shows that only quercitrin was found in the MEMM at the tested wavelength (Figure 1C).Figure 1


Mechanisms of gastroprotection of methanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum leaves.

Zakaria ZA, Balan T, Mamat SS, Mohtarrudin N, Kek TL, Salleh MZ - BMC Complement Altern Med (2015)

HPLC profile of MEMM at the wavelength 254 nm. A. HPLC analysis of MEMM at wavelength 254 nm shows 7 major peaks that were clearly separated at the retention time (RT) of 14.355, 18.146, 18.575, 18.894, 19.395, 21.047, and 23.657 min. B: Further HPLC analysis was carried out to determine the range of λmax value of the 7 respective peaks detected in MEMM. The chromatogram demonstrates that the λmax value for the six respective peaks falls in the regions of 206.1-279.1, 217.8-273.2, 219.0, 217.8-269.7, 254.3-357.7 and 255.5-349.4 nm, respectively, suggesting, in part the presence of flavonoid-based compounds. Comparison between chromatogram of the standard flavonoid with the chromatogram of MEMM at 300 nm showed the possible presence of quercitrin, which corresponds to peak 7.C: Comparison between HPLC chromatogram of MEMM and quercitrin at 300 nm shows that quercitrin was present in MEMM. The peak that was produced by quercitrin corresponds to peak 7 of MEMM.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487837&req=5

Fig1: HPLC profile of MEMM at the wavelength 254 nm. A. HPLC analysis of MEMM at wavelength 254 nm shows 7 major peaks that were clearly separated at the retention time (RT) of 14.355, 18.146, 18.575, 18.894, 19.395, 21.047, and 23.657 min. B: Further HPLC analysis was carried out to determine the range of λmax value of the 7 respective peaks detected in MEMM. The chromatogram demonstrates that the λmax value for the six respective peaks falls in the regions of 206.1-279.1, 217.8-273.2, 219.0, 217.8-269.7, 254.3-357.7 and 255.5-349.4 nm, respectively, suggesting, in part the presence of flavonoid-based compounds. Comparison between chromatogram of the standard flavonoid with the chromatogram of MEMM at 300 nm showed the possible presence of quercitrin, which corresponds to peak 7.C: Comparison between HPLC chromatogram of MEMM and quercitrin at 300 nm shows that quercitrin was present in MEMM. The peak that was produced by quercitrin corresponds to peak 7 of MEMM.
Mentions: The phytochemicals analysis of MEMM was carried out using the HPLC method and following several trials at different wavelengths, the phytochemicals profile of MEMM was best isolated at the wavelength of 300 nm (Figure 1A). At the wavelength of 300 nm, 7 major peaks were clearly separated from the MEMM at the retention time (RT) of 14.355, 18.146, 18.575, 18.894, 19.395, 21.047, and 23.657 min. In order to predict the class of compounds present in MEMM, further analysis were carried out to determine the range of λmax value of the seven peaks. As can be seen in Figure 1B, the λmax value for the four peaks falls in the regions of 206.1-279.1, 217.8-273.2, 219.8-269.7, 219.0-349.4, 254.3-357.7 and 255.5-349.4 nm, respectively. An attempt to determine the presence of some of the well-known flavonoids shows that only quercitrin was found in the MEMM at the tested wavelength (Figure 1C).Figure 1

Bottom Line: The involvement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and sulfhydryl (SH) compounds in the gastroprotective effect of MEMM were also measured.MEMM inhibited the lipoxygenase (LOX) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities with the highest affinity for the former while quercitrin showed high affinity for XO activity.MEMM exhibited a gastroprotective activity due partly to the presence of quercitrin, its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and via the modulation of NO and SH groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Halal Product Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. dr_zaz@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Melastoma malabathricum L. (Melastomaceae) is a small shrub with various medicinal uses. The present study was carried out to determine the gastroprotective mechanisms of methanol extract of M. malabathricum leaves (MEMM) in rats.

Methods: The extract's mechanisms of gastroprotection (50, 250, 500 mg/kg) were studied using the pylorus-ligation in rat model wherein volume, pH, free and total acidity of gastric juice, and gastric wall mucus content were determined. The involvement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and sulfhydryl (SH) compounds in the gastroprotective effect of MEMM were also measured. MEMM was subjected to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and phytochemical analysis and HPLC profiling.

Results: MEMM contained various phyto-constituents with quercitrin being identified as part of them. MEMM and quercitrin: i) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the volume and acidity of gastric juice while increasing the pH and gastric wall mucus content.; ii) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the level of SOD, GTP and GTR while significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the level of CAT, MPO and TBARS activities.; iii) exerted gastroprotective activity when assessed using the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer assay, which was reversed by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; an inhibitor of NO synthase) and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM; a sulfhydryl (SH) blocker). MEMM inhibited the lipoxygenase (LOX) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities with the highest affinity for the former while quercitrin showed high affinity for XO activity.

Conclusions: MEMM exhibited a gastroprotective activity due partly to the presence of quercitrin, its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and via the modulation of NO and SH groups.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus