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Two New Genera of Planktonic Ciliates and Insights into the Evolution of the Family Strombidiidae (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligotrichia).

Liu W, Yi Z, Xu D, Clamp JC, Li J, Lin X, Song W - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids.The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence.In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Protozoology, Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China; Laboratory of Protozoology, Institute of Evolution and Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China; Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Oligotrich ciliates are common marine microplankters, but their biodiversity and evolutionary relationships have not been well-documented. Morphological descriptions and small subunit rRNA gene sequences of two new species representing two new strombidiid genera, Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. are presented, and their taxonomy and molecular phylogeny are analyzed. Sinistrostrombidium gen. nov. is characterized by a sinistrally spiraled girdle kinety and a longitudinal ventral kinety. Antestrombidium gen. nov. is distinguished by tripartite somatic kineties (circular and ventral kineties plus dextrally spiraled girdle kinety). Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids. The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence. In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

No MeSH data available.


Hypothetical evolution of Strombidiidae based on an analysis of somatic ciliature.Small arrows mark the orientation of the kineties. Legend: AZM-adoral zone of membranelles; Ex-extrusomes; GK-girdle kinety; OP-oral primordium; VK-ventral kinety.
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pone.0131726.g007: Hypothetical evolution of Strombidiidae based on an analysis of somatic ciliature.Small arrows mark the orientation of the kineties. Legend: AZM-adoral zone of membranelles; Ex-extrusomes; GK-girdle kinety; OP-oral primordium; VK-ventral kinety.

Mentions: Up to now, 16 different ciliary patterns can be identified in 12 genera belonging to the family Strombidiidae (Fig 7, previous analyses suggested that Laboea should represent a member of family Tontoniidae rather than Strombidiidae and thus its ciliary pattern was not included here [21, 38, 39]) and SSrRNA gene sequences of 28 species of oligotrichs are available for analysis, which prompts us to offer an update of the evolutionary hypothesis of oligotrichs and relate it to morphotypes of strombidiids.


Two New Genera of Planktonic Ciliates and Insights into the Evolution of the Family Strombidiidae (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligotrichia).

Liu W, Yi Z, Xu D, Clamp JC, Li J, Lin X, Song W - PLoS ONE (2015)

Hypothetical evolution of Strombidiidae based on an analysis of somatic ciliature.Small arrows mark the orientation of the kineties. Legend: AZM-adoral zone of membranelles; Ex-extrusomes; GK-girdle kinety; OP-oral primordium; VK-ventral kinety.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487692&req=5

pone.0131726.g007: Hypothetical evolution of Strombidiidae based on an analysis of somatic ciliature.Small arrows mark the orientation of the kineties. Legend: AZM-adoral zone of membranelles; Ex-extrusomes; GK-girdle kinety; OP-oral primordium; VK-ventral kinety.
Mentions: Up to now, 16 different ciliary patterns can be identified in 12 genera belonging to the family Strombidiidae (Fig 7, previous analyses suggested that Laboea should represent a member of family Tontoniidae rather than Strombidiidae and thus its ciliary pattern was not included here [21, 38, 39]) and SSrRNA gene sequences of 28 species of oligotrichs are available for analysis, which prompts us to offer an update of the evolutionary hypothesis of oligotrichs and relate it to morphotypes of strombidiids.

Bottom Line: Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids.The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence.In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Protozoology, Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China; Laboratory of Protozoology, Institute of Evolution and Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China; Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Oligotrich ciliates are common marine microplankters, but their biodiversity and evolutionary relationships have not been well-documented. Morphological descriptions and small subunit rRNA gene sequences of two new species representing two new strombidiid genera, Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. are presented, and their taxonomy and molecular phylogeny are analyzed. Sinistrostrombidium gen. nov. is characterized by a sinistrally spiraled girdle kinety and a longitudinal ventral kinety. Antestrombidium gen. nov. is distinguished by tripartite somatic kineties (circular and ventral kineties plus dextrally spiraled girdle kinety). Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids. The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence. In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

No MeSH data available.