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Two New Genera of Planktonic Ciliates and Insights into the Evolution of the Family Strombidiidae (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligotrichia).

Liu W, Yi Z, Xu D, Clamp JC, Li J, Lin X, Song W - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids.The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence.In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Protozoology, Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China; Laboratory of Protozoology, Institute of Evolution and Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China; Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Oligotrich ciliates are common marine microplankters, but their biodiversity and evolutionary relationships have not been well-documented. Morphological descriptions and small subunit rRNA gene sequences of two new species representing two new strombidiid genera, Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. are presented, and their taxonomy and molecular phylogeny are analyzed. Sinistrostrombidium gen. nov. is characterized by a sinistrally spiraled girdle kinety and a longitudinal ventral kinety. Antestrombidium gen. nov. is distinguished by tripartite somatic kineties (circular and ventral kineties plus dextrally spiraled girdle kinety). Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids. The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence. In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

No MeSH data available.


Maximum Likelihood tree inferred from SSrRNA gene sequences.Numbers at the nodes are support values presented in the following order: Maximum Likelihood (ML) bootstrap values and Bayesian inference (BI) posterior probabilities. Nodes absent from BI tree are indicated by a hyphen. The scale bar indicates the number of substitutions per 10 nucleotides.
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pone.0131726.g006: Maximum Likelihood tree inferred from SSrRNA gene sequences.Numbers at the nodes are support values presented in the following order: Maximum Likelihood (ML) bootstrap values and Bayesian inference (BI) posterior probabilities. Nodes absent from BI tree are indicated by a hyphen. The scale bar indicates the number of substitutions per 10 nucleotides.

Mentions: The SSrRNA gene sequences of Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum and Antestrombidium agathae were deposited into GenBank with accession numbers JX310366 and JX310365, respectively. In all our phylogenetic trees (Fig 6), monophyly of the subclasses Oligotrichia and Choreotrichia was supported strongly at their basal nodes, respectively (95% ML, 1.00 BI; 100% ML, 1.00 BI). Lynella semiglobosa branches basally off the Oligotrichia with low support (66% ML).


Two New Genera of Planktonic Ciliates and Insights into the Evolution of the Family Strombidiidae (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligotrichia).

Liu W, Yi Z, Xu D, Clamp JC, Li J, Lin X, Song W - PLoS ONE (2015)

Maximum Likelihood tree inferred from SSrRNA gene sequences.Numbers at the nodes are support values presented in the following order: Maximum Likelihood (ML) bootstrap values and Bayesian inference (BI) posterior probabilities. Nodes absent from BI tree are indicated by a hyphen. The scale bar indicates the number of substitutions per 10 nucleotides.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487692&req=5

pone.0131726.g006: Maximum Likelihood tree inferred from SSrRNA gene sequences.Numbers at the nodes are support values presented in the following order: Maximum Likelihood (ML) bootstrap values and Bayesian inference (BI) posterior probabilities. Nodes absent from BI tree are indicated by a hyphen. The scale bar indicates the number of substitutions per 10 nucleotides.
Mentions: The SSrRNA gene sequences of Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum and Antestrombidium agathae were deposited into GenBank with accession numbers JX310366 and JX310365, respectively. In all our phylogenetic trees (Fig 6), monophyly of the subclasses Oligotrichia and Choreotrichia was supported strongly at their basal nodes, respectively (95% ML, 1.00 BI; 100% ML, 1.00 BI). Lynella semiglobosa branches basally off the Oligotrichia with low support (66% ML).

Bottom Line: Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids.The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence.In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Protozoology, Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China; Laboratory of Protozoology, Institute of Evolution and Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China; Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Oligotrich ciliates are common marine microplankters, but their biodiversity and evolutionary relationships have not been well-documented. Morphological descriptions and small subunit rRNA gene sequences of two new species representing two new strombidiid genera, Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. are presented, and their taxonomy and molecular phylogeny are analyzed. Sinistrostrombidium gen. nov. is characterized by a sinistrally spiraled girdle kinety and a longitudinal ventral kinety. Antestrombidium gen. nov. is distinguished by tripartite somatic kineties (circular and ventral kineties plus dextrally spiraled girdle kinety). Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids. The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence. In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

No MeSH data available.