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Two New Genera of Planktonic Ciliates and Insights into the Evolution of the Family Strombidiidae (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligotrichia).

Liu W, Yi Z, Xu D, Clamp JC, Li J, Lin X, Song W - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids.The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence.In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Protozoology, Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China; Laboratory of Protozoology, Institute of Evolution and Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China; Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Oligotrich ciliates are common marine microplankters, but their biodiversity and evolutionary relationships have not been well-documented. Morphological descriptions and small subunit rRNA gene sequences of two new species representing two new strombidiid genera, Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. are presented, and their taxonomy and molecular phylogeny are analyzed. Sinistrostrombidium gen. nov. is characterized by a sinistrally spiraled girdle kinety and a longitudinal ventral kinety. Antestrombidium gen. nov. is distinguished by tripartite somatic kineties (circular and ventral kineties plus dextrally spiraled girdle kinety). Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids. The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence. In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Photomicrographs of Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. from life (A-H) and after staining with protargol (I-M).A, B. Ventral views of two individuals; C. Dorsal view; D. Ventral view of anterior part of cell, arrow marks the apical protrusion and arrowhead indicates the extrusomes; E, F. Ventral (E) and Dorsal (F) views showing the distribution of extrusomes (arrowheads); G, H. Posterior portion of cell showing the distribution of extrusomes; I, J. Ventral and dorsal views of posterior portion of cell, showing the somatic kineties; K, L. Left and ventral views showing the GK and CK; M. Right lateral view showing the GK. Legend: CK-circular kinety; GK-girdle kinety; Ma-macronucleus; VK-ventral kinety; VM-ventral membranelles. Scale bars: A-C. 30 μm; D, G-I, L, M. 10 μm; E, F, J, K. 20 μm.
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pone.0131726.g005: Photomicrographs of Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. from life (A-H) and after staining with protargol (I-M).A, B. Ventral views of two individuals; C. Dorsal view; D. Ventral view of anterior part of cell, arrow marks the apical protrusion and arrowhead indicates the extrusomes; E, F. Ventral (E) and Dorsal (F) views showing the distribution of extrusomes (arrowheads); G, H. Posterior portion of cell showing the distribution of extrusomes; I, J. Ventral and dorsal views of posterior portion of cell, showing the somatic kineties; K, L. Left and ventral views showing the GK and CK; M. Right lateral view showing the GK. Legend: CK-circular kinety; GK-girdle kinety; Ma-macronucleus; VK-ventral kinety; VM-ventral membranelles. Scale bars: A-C. 30 μm; D, G-I, L, M. 10 μm; E, F, J, K. 20 μm.

Mentions: Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. (Figs 4 and 5; Table 1)


Two New Genera of Planktonic Ciliates and Insights into the Evolution of the Family Strombidiidae (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligotrichia).

Liu W, Yi Z, Xu D, Clamp JC, Li J, Lin X, Song W - PLoS ONE (2015)

Photomicrographs of Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. from life (A-H) and after staining with protargol (I-M).A, B. Ventral views of two individuals; C. Dorsal view; D. Ventral view of anterior part of cell, arrow marks the apical protrusion and arrowhead indicates the extrusomes; E, F. Ventral (E) and Dorsal (F) views showing the distribution of extrusomes (arrowheads); G, H. Posterior portion of cell showing the distribution of extrusomes; I, J. Ventral and dorsal views of posterior portion of cell, showing the somatic kineties; K, L. Left and ventral views showing the GK and CK; M. Right lateral view showing the GK. Legend: CK-circular kinety; GK-girdle kinety; Ma-macronucleus; VK-ventral kinety; VM-ventral membranelles. Scale bars: A-C. 30 μm; D, G-I, L, M. 10 μm; E, F, J, K. 20 μm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487692&req=5

pone.0131726.g005: Photomicrographs of Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. from life (A-H) and after staining with protargol (I-M).A, B. Ventral views of two individuals; C. Dorsal view; D. Ventral view of anterior part of cell, arrow marks the apical protrusion and arrowhead indicates the extrusomes; E, F. Ventral (E) and Dorsal (F) views showing the distribution of extrusomes (arrowheads); G, H. Posterior portion of cell showing the distribution of extrusomes; I, J. Ventral and dorsal views of posterior portion of cell, showing the somatic kineties; K, L. Left and ventral views showing the GK and CK; M. Right lateral view showing the GK. Legend: CK-circular kinety; GK-girdle kinety; Ma-macronucleus; VK-ventral kinety; VM-ventral membranelles. Scale bars: A-C. 30 μm; D, G-I, L, M. 10 μm; E, F, J, K. 20 μm.
Mentions: Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. (Figs 4 and 5; Table 1)

Bottom Line: Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids.The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence.In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Protozoology, Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China; Laboratory of Protozoology, Institute of Evolution and Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China; Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Oligotrich ciliates are common marine microplankters, but their biodiversity and evolutionary relationships have not been well-documented. Morphological descriptions and small subunit rRNA gene sequences of two new species representing two new strombidiid genera, Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. are presented, and their taxonomy and molecular phylogeny are analyzed. Sinistrostrombidium gen. nov. is characterized by a sinistrally spiraled girdle kinety and a longitudinal ventral kinety. Antestrombidium gen. nov. is distinguished by tripartite somatic kineties (circular and ventral kineties plus dextrally spiraled girdle kinety). Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids. The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence. In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus