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Two New Genera of Planktonic Ciliates and Insights into the Evolution of the Family Strombidiidae (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligotrichia).

Liu W, Yi Z, Xu D, Clamp JC, Li J, Lin X, Song W - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids.The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence.In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Protozoology, Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China; Laboratory of Protozoology, Institute of Evolution and Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China; Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Oligotrich ciliates are common marine microplankters, but their biodiversity and evolutionary relationships have not been well-documented. Morphological descriptions and small subunit rRNA gene sequences of two new species representing two new strombidiid genera, Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. are presented, and their taxonomy and molecular phylogeny are analyzed. Sinistrostrombidium gen. nov. is characterized by a sinistrally spiraled girdle kinety and a longitudinal ventral kinety. Antestrombidium gen. nov. is distinguished by tripartite somatic kineties (circular and ventral kineties plus dextrally spiraled girdle kinety). Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids. The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence. In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Photomicrographs of Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. from life (A-M) and after staining with protargol (N-Q).A. Ventral view of a typical individual; B-D. Variation in shape of the body, note the apical protrusion (arrow); E. Ventral view of anterior part of cell showing the VM (arrow); F-H. Dorsal (F), ventral (G) and lateral (H) views showing the distribution of extrusomes (arrowheads); I. Ventral view of posterior part of cell showing the hemitheca (arrow); J. Outer ends of extrusomes; K. Detail of hemitheca with polygonal cortical platelets; L. Undischarged extrusomes; M. Discharged extrusomes; N. Ventral view showing the somatic kineties and AZM; O. Ventral view of anterior part of cell showing the AM and VM; P. Ventral view, arrowhead marks the anterior end of VK, arrow indicates the anterior end of GK; Q. Dorsal view showing the GK. Legend: AM-anterior membranelles; GK-girdle kinety; VK-ventral kinety; VM-ventral membranelles. Scale bars: A-D, H, N. 20 μm; E-G, I, O-Q. 10 μm; J-M. 5μm.
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pone.0131726.g003: Photomicrographs of Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. from life (A-M) and after staining with protargol (N-Q).A. Ventral view of a typical individual; B-D. Variation in shape of the body, note the apical protrusion (arrow); E. Ventral view of anterior part of cell showing the VM (arrow); F-H. Dorsal (F), ventral (G) and lateral (H) views showing the distribution of extrusomes (arrowheads); I. Ventral view of posterior part of cell showing the hemitheca (arrow); J. Outer ends of extrusomes; K. Detail of hemitheca with polygonal cortical platelets; L. Undischarged extrusomes; M. Discharged extrusomes; N. Ventral view showing the somatic kineties and AZM; O. Ventral view of anterior part of cell showing the AM and VM; P. Ventral view, arrowhead marks the anterior end of VK, arrow indicates the anterior end of GK; Q. Dorsal view showing the GK. Legend: AM-anterior membranelles; GK-girdle kinety; VK-ventral kinety; VM-ventral membranelles. Scale bars: A-D, H, N. 20 μm; E-G, I, O-Q. 10 μm; J-M. 5μm.

Mentions: Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. (Figs 2 and 3; Table 1)


Two New Genera of Planktonic Ciliates and Insights into the Evolution of the Family Strombidiidae (Protista, Ciliophora, Oligotrichia).

Liu W, Yi Z, Xu D, Clamp JC, Li J, Lin X, Song W - PLoS ONE (2015)

Photomicrographs of Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. from life (A-M) and after staining with protargol (N-Q).A. Ventral view of a typical individual; B-D. Variation in shape of the body, note the apical protrusion (arrow); E. Ventral view of anterior part of cell showing the VM (arrow); F-H. Dorsal (F), ventral (G) and lateral (H) views showing the distribution of extrusomes (arrowheads); I. Ventral view of posterior part of cell showing the hemitheca (arrow); J. Outer ends of extrusomes; K. Detail of hemitheca with polygonal cortical platelets; L. Undischarged extrusomes; M. Discharged extrusomes; N. Ventral view showing the somatic kineties and AZM; O. Ventral view of anterior part of cell showing the AM and VM; P. Ventral view, arrowhead marks the anterior end of VK, arrow indicates the anterior end of GK; Q. Dorsal view showing the GK. Legend: AM-anterior membranelles; GK-girdle kinety; VK-ventral kinety; VM-ventral membranelles. Scale bars: A-D, H, N. 20 μm; E-G, I, O-Q. 10 μm; J-M. 5μm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487692&req=5

pone.0131726.g003: Photomicrographs of Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. from life (A-M) and after staining with protargol (N-Q).A. Ventral view of a typical individual; B-D. Variation in shape of the body, note the apical protrusion (arrow); E. Ventral view of anterior part of cell showing the VM (arrow); F-H. Dorsal (F), ventral (G) and lateral (H) views showing the distribution of extrusomes (arrowheads); I. Ventral view of posterior part of cell showing the hemitheca (arrow); J. Outer ends of extrusomes; K. Detail of hemitheca with polygonal cortical platelets; L. Undischarged extrusomes; M. Discharged extrusomes; N. Ventral view showing the somatic kineties and AZM; O. Ventral view of anterior part of cell showing the AM and VM; P. Ventral view, arrowhead marks the anterior end of VK, arrow indicates the anterior end of GK; Q. Dorsal view showing the GK. Legend: AM-anterior membranelles; GK-girdle kinety; VK-ventral kinety; VM-ventral membranelles. Scale bars: A-D, H, N. 20 μm; E-G, I, O-Q. 10 μm; J-M. 5μm.
Mentions: Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. (Figs 2 and 3; Table 1)

Bottom Line: Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids.The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence.In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Protozoology, Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environmental Science in Guangdong Higher Education, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China; Laboratory of Protozoology, Institute of Evolution and Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China; Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou, China.

ABSTRACT
Oligotrich ciliates are common marine microplankters, but their biodiversity and evolutionary relationships have not been well-documented. Morphological descriptions and small subunit rRNA gene sequences of two new species representing two new strombidiid genera, Sinistrostrombidium cupiformum gen. nov., sp. nov. and Antestrombidium agathae gen. nov., sp. nov. are presented, and their taxonomy and molecular phylogeny are analyzed. Sinistrostrombidium gen. nov. is characterized by a sinistrally spiraled girdle kinety and a longitudinal ventral kinety. Antestrombidium gen. nov. is distinguished by tripartite somatic kineties (circular and ventral kineties plus dextrally spiraled girdle kinety). Sinistrostrombidium and Antestrombidium branched separately from one another in phylogenetic trees, clustering with different clades of strombidiids. The new genera added to the diversities of ciliary patterns and small subunit rRNA gene sequences in strombidiids leads to presentation of a new hypothesis about evolution of the 12 known strombidiid genera, based on ciliary pattern and partly supported by molecular evidence. In addition, our new morphological and molecular analyses support establishment of a new order Lynnellida ord. nov., characterized by an open adoral zone of membranelles without differentiation of anterior and ventral membranelles, for Lynnella, but we remain unable to assign the genus to a subclass with confidence.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus