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Bioanalytical techniques for detecting biomarkers of response to human asbestos exposure.

Mesaros C, Worth AJ, Snyder NW, Christofidou-Solomidou M, Vachani A, Albelda SM, Blair IA - Bioanalysis (2015)

Bottom Line: Asbestos exposure is known to cause lung cancer and mesothelioma and its health and economic impacts have been well documented.The exceptionally long latency periods of most asbestos-related diseases have hampered preventative and precautionary steps thus far.These studies range from small molecule oxidative stress biomarkers to proteins involved in immune responses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1Penn SRP Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6160, USA.

ABSTRACT
Asbestos exposure is known to cause lung cancer and mesothelioma and its health and economic impacts have been well documented. The exceptionally long latency periods of most asbestos-related diseases have hampered preventative and precautionary steps thus far. We aimed to summarize the state of knowledge on biomarkers of response to asbestos exposure. Asbestos is not present in human biological fluids; rather it is inhaled and trapped in lung tissue. Biomarkers of response, which reflect a change in biologic function in response to asbestos exposure, are analyzed. Several classes of molecules have been studied and evaluated for their potential utility as biomarkers of asbestos exposure. These studies range from small molecule oxidative stress biomarkers to proteins involved in immune responses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The median and quartile serum osteopontin levelsSamples were from mesothelioma patients, pleural plaque patients, healthy subjects exposed to asbestos and a control nonexposed group.Reprinted with permission from [92] © Springer (2013).
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Figure 7: The median and quartile serum osteopontin levelsSamples were from mesothelioma patients, pleural plaque patients, healthy subjects exposed to asbestos and a control nonexposed group.Reprinted with permission from [92] © Springer (2013).

Mentions: Osteopontin is a glycoprotein that is overexpressed in lung cancer and several other types of cancer [102]. It is an extracellular cell adhesion protein that plays a key role in cytokine mediated immune response. High levels of osteopontin are correlated with tumor progression and metastasis. In a rat model, osteopontin was upregulated in asbestos-induced tumors [103]. Compellingly, osteopontin levels in plasma or serum were able to differentiate between healthy subjects exposed to asbestos and mesothelioma patients [104]. Several human population studies looked at serum levels of osteopontin in asbestos-exposed subjects [56,92,95,104–106]. All studies employed a commercially available ELISA kit, which had a detection limit of 3 ng/ml (Table 1) [56]. The first population study [105], which was conducted in Michigan, examined 69 asbestos-exposed subjects and 45 healthy controls. The level of osteopontin was elevated in the asbestos group (30 ±3 ng/ml) compared with the unexposed group (20 ±4 ng/ml) but was of borderline statistical significant (p = 0.06). Creaney et al. [56] examined an Australian cohort to compare osteopontin levels in patients with different lung disorders, including ten healthy controls exposed to asbestos and ten nonexposed. Their findings agreed with the Michigan study in that osteopontin was not significantly different in the asbestos exposed population. Furthermore, even if serum and plasma levels of osteopontin were highly correlated with asbestos exposure [107], osteopontin can be hydrolyzed by thrombin and so the results might not be a true reflection of protein levels in the blood. A recent study conducted in Turkey had 120 healthy controls and 123 subjects exposed to asbestos [92]. This was the first study to examine a cohort of subjects exposed to naturally occurring surface asbestos. The subjects lived within 10 km of ophiolitic areas, which are known sources of naturally occurring asbestos. The study measured levels of mesothelin as well as osteopontin and concluded that both proteins were related to the severity of the inflammation observed in individual subjects. The difference in the levels of osteopontin was significant (p < 0.05) in controls versus asbestos-exposed individuals but was not useful to predict malignant transformations (Figure 7). Another recent study [95] analyzed mesothelin and osteopontin levels using ELISA kits in a very large number of asbestos-exposed workers (n = 1894) together with a smaller number of unexposed controls (n = 102). The levels of osteopontin were not significantly different between the two groups. This study also found no correlation between osteopontin and mesothelin levels with the duration of the asbestos exposure.


Bioanalytical techniques for detecting biomarkers of response to human asbestos exposure.

Mesaros C, Worth AJ, Snyder NW, Christofidou-Solomidou M, Vachani A, Albelda SM, Blair IA - Bioanalysis (2015)

The median and quartile serum osteopontin levelsSamples were from mesothelioma patients, pleural plaque patients, healthy subjects exposed to asbestos and a control nonexposed group.Reprinted with permission from [92] © Springer (2013).
© Copyright Policy - open-access - permissions-link
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487641&req=5

Figure 7: The median and quartile serum osteopontin levelsSamples were from mesothelioma patients, pleural plaque patients, healthy subjects exposed to asbestos and a control nonexposed group.Reprinted with permission from [92] © Springer (2013).
Mentions: Osteopontin is a glycoprotein that is overexpressed in lung cancer and several other types of cancer [102]. It is an extracellular cell adhesion protein that plays a key role in cytokine mediated immune response. High levels of osteopontin are correlated with tumor progression and metastasis. In a rat model, osteopontin was upregulated in asbestos-induced tumors [103]. Compellingly, osteopontin levels in plasma or serum were able to differentiate between healthy subjects exposed to asbestos and mesothelioma patients [104]. Several human population studies looked at serum levels of osteopontin in asbestos-exposed subjects [56,92,95,104–106]. All studies employed a commercially available ELISA kit, which had a detection limit of 3 ng/ml (Table 1) [56]. The first population study [105], which was conducted in Michigan, examined 69 asbestos-exposed subjects and 45 healthy controls. The level of osteopontin was elevated in the asbestos group (30 ±3 ng/ml) compared with the unexposed group (20 ±4 ng/ml) but was of borderline statistical significant (p = 0.06). Creaney et al. [56] examined an Australian cohort to compare osteopontin levels in patients with different lung disorders, including ten healthy controls exposed to asbestos and ten nonexposed. Their findings agreed with the Michigan study in that osteopontin was not significantly different in the asbestos exposed population. Furthermore, even if serum and plasma levels of osteopontin were highly correlated with asbestos exposure [107], osteopontin can be hydrolyzed by thrombin and so the results might not be a true reflection of protein levels in the blood. A recent study conducted in Turkey had 120 healthy controls and 123 subjects exposed to asbestos [92]. This was the first study to examine a cohort of subjects exposed to naturally occurring surface asbestos. The subjects lived within 10 km of ophiolitic areas, which are known sources of naturally occurring asbestos. The study measured levels of mesothelin as well as osteopontin and concluded that both proteins were related to the severity of the inflammation observed in individual subjects. The difference in the levels of osteopontin was significant (p < 0.05) in controls versus asbestos-exposed individuals but was not useful to predict malignant transformations (Figure 7). Another recent study [95] analyzed mesothelin and osteopontin levels using ELISA kits in a very large number of asbestos-exposed workers (n = 1894) together with a smaller number of unexposed controls (n = 102). The levels of osteopontin were not significantly different between the two groups. This study also found no correlation between osteopontin and mesothelin levels with the duration of the asbestos exposure.

Bottom Line: Asbestos exposure is known to cause lung cancer and mesothelioma and its health and economic impacts have been well documented.The exceptionally long latency periods of most asbestos-related diseases have hampered preventative and precautionary steps thus far.These studies range from small molecule oxidative stress biomarkers to proteins involved in immune responses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1Penn SRP Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6160, USA.

ABSTRACT
Asbestos exposure is known to cause lung cancer and mesothelioma and its health and economic impacts have been well documented. The exceptionally long latency periods of most asbestos-related diseases have hampered preventative and precautionary steps thus far. We aimed to summarize the state of knowledge on biomarkers of response to asbestos exposure. Asbestos is not present in human biological fluids; rather it is inhaled and trapped in lung tissue. Biomarkers of response, which reflect a change in biologic function in response to asbestos exposure, are analyzed. Several classes of molecules have been studied and evaluated for their potential utility as biomarkers of asbestos exposure. These studies range from small molecule oxidative stress biomarkers to proteins involved in immune responses.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus