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Working memory, reading ability and the effects of distance and typicality on anaphor resolution in children.

Joseph HS, Bremner G, Liversedge SP, Nation K - J Cogn Psychol (Hove) (2015)

Bottom Line: Children showed effects of distance and typicality on the anaphor itself and also on the word to the right of the anaphor, suggesting that anaphoric processing begins immediately but continues after the eyes have left the anaphor.Furthermore, children showed no evidence of resolving anaphors in the most difficult condition (distant atypical antecedent), suggesting that anaphoric processing that is demanding may not occur online in children of this age.Finally, working memory capacity and reading comprehension skill affect the magnitude and time course of typicality and distance effects during anaphoric processing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Social Work and Public Health, Oxford Brookes University , Gipsy Lane Campus, Headington , Oxford OX3 0BP , UK ; Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford , South Parks Road, Oxford , OX1 3UD , UK.

ABSTRACT

We investigated the time course of anaphor resolution in children and whether this is modulated by individual differences in working memory and reading skill. The eye movements of 30 children (10-11 years) were monitored as they read short paragraphs in which (1) the semantic typicality of an antecedent and (2) its distance in relation to an anaphor were orthogonally manipulated. Children showed effects of distance and typicality on the anaphor itself and also on the word to the right of the anaphor, suggesting that anaphoric processing begins immediately but continues after the eyes have left the anaphor. Furthermore, children showed no evidence of resolving anaphors in the most difficult condition (distant atypical antecedent), suggesting that anaphoric processing that is demanding may not occur online in children of this age. Finally, working memory capacity and reading comprehension skill affect the magnitude and time course of typicality and distance effects during anaphoric processing.

No MeSH data available.


First fixation durations in the anaphor region (panel A) and total reading times in the post-anaphor region (panel B) in the near and far conditions for children with working memory scores 1 SD above the mean, 1 SD below the mean and mean scores. Error bars show SE.
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f0001: First fixation durations in the anaphor region (panel A) and total reading times in the post-anaphor region (panel B) in the near and far conditions for children with working memory scores 1 SD above the mean, 1 SD below the mean and mean scores. Error bars show SE.

Mentions: In first fixation durations, although there were no main effects of working memory or reading comprehension skill (ts < 1), there was an interaction between distance and working memory (b = 0.03, SE = .01, t = 2.46), such that high, but not low, working memory capacity was associated with an inverse effect of distance. Figure 1A shows that high-span children (1 SD above the mean; n = 4) showed shorter first fixations overall than their peers but also longer fixations following near than far antecedents, compared to their peers. This may reflect very early bonding in the near condition for high-span readers. There were no other reliable effects or interactions in first fixation durations, gaze durations, regressions, go past times or total reading times (all ts and zs < 1.96).


Working memory, reading ability and the effects of distance and typicality on anaphor resolution in children.

Joseph HS, Bremner G, Liversedge SP, Nation K - J Cogn Psychol (Hove) (2015)

First fixation durations in the anaphor region (panel A) and total reading times in the post-anaphor region (panel B) in the near and far conditions for children with working memory scores 1 SD above the mean, 1 SD below the mean and mean scores. Error bars show SE.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487586&req=5

f0001: First fixation durations in the anaphor region (panel A) and total reading times in the post-anaphor region (panel B) in the near and far conditions for children with working memory scores 1 SD above the mean, 1 SD below the mean and mean scores. Error bars show SE.
Mentions: In first fixation durations, although there were no main effects of working memory or reading comprehension skill (ts < 1), there was an interaction between distance and working memory (b = 0.03, SE = .01, t = 2.46), such that high, but not low, working memory capacity was associated with an inverse effect of distance. Figure 1A shows that high-span children (1 SD above the mean; n = 4) showed shorter first fixations overall than their peers but also longer fixations following near than far antecedents, compared to their peers. This may reflect very early bonding in the near condition for high-span readers. There were no other reliable effects or interactions in first fixation durations, gaze durations, regressions, go past times or total reading times (all ts and zs < 1.96).

Bottom Line: Children showed effects of distance and typicality on the anaphor itself and also on the word to the right of the anaphor, suggesting that anaphoric processing begins immediately but continues after the eyes have left the anaphor.Furthermore, children showed no evidence of resolving anaphors in the most difficult condition (distant atypical antecedent), suggesting that anaphoric processing that is demanding may not occur online in children of this age.Finally, working memory capacity and reading comprehension skill affect the magnitude and time course of typicality and distance effects during anaphoric processing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Social Work and Public Health, Oxford Brookes University , Gipsy Lane Campus, Headington , Oxford OX3 0BP , UK ; Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford , South Parks Road, Oxford , OX1 3UD , UK.

ABSTRACT

We investigated the time course of anaphor resolution in children and whether this is modulated by individual differences in working memory and reading skill. The eye movements of 30 children (10-11 years) were monitored as they read short paragraphs in which (1) the semantic typicality of an antecedent and (2) its distance in relation to an anaphor were orthogonally manipulated. Children showed effects of distance and typicality on the anaphor itself and also on the word to the right of the anaphor, suggesting that anaphoric processing begins immediately but continues after the eyes have left the anaphor. Furthermore, children showed no evidence of resolving anaphors in the most difficult condition (distant atypical antecedent), suggesting that anaphoric processing that is demanding may not occur online in children of this age. Finally, working memory capacity and reading comprehension skill affect the magnitude and time course of typicality and distance effects during anaphoric processing.

No MeSH data available.