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An incremental boundary study on parafoveal preprocessing in children reading aloud: Parafoveal masks overestimate the preview benefit.

Marx C, Hawelka S, Schuster S, Hutzler F - J Cogn Psychol (Hove) (2015)

Bottom Line: Recent studies, however, suggested that the benefit estimate is inflated due to interference of the parafoveal masks, i.e., the masks inflict processing costs.This technique does not require a baseline condition, but makes it possible to determine whether a preview induces facilitation or interference.With the novel incremental boundary technique, in contrast, one can achieve an accurate estimate of the preview benefit.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Salzburg , Salzburg , Austria.

ABSTRACT

Parafoveal preprocessing is an important factor for efficient reading and, in eye-movement studies, is typically investigated by means of parafoveal masking: Valid previews are compared to instances in which masks prevent preprocessing. A long-held assumption was that parafoveal preprocessing, as assessed by this technique, only reflects facilitation (i.e., a preview benefit). Recent studies, however, suggested that the benefit estimate is inflated due to interference of the parafoveal masks, i.e., the masks inflict processing costs. With children from Grades 4 and 6, we administered the novel incremental priming technique. The technique manipulates the salience of the previews by systematically varying its perceptibility (i.e., by visually degrading the previews). This technique does not require a baseline condition, but makes it possible to determine whether a preview induces facilitation or interference. Our salience manipulation of valid previews revealed a preview benefit in the children of both Grades. For two commonly used parafoveal masks, we observed interference corroborating the notion that masks are not a proper baseline. With the novel incremental boundary technique, in contrast, one can achieve an accurate estimate of the preview benefit.

No MeSH data available.


The current manipulation of the parafoveal previews by visual degradation placed pixels of the degraded words in the spaces between words—possibly reducing the informative value of the interword spaces. This Figure provides an example of an improved manipulation where the visual information of interword spacings is kept intact by restricting the visual degradation to the boundaries of the degraded words (compare with Figure 1).
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f0004: The current manipulation of the parafoveal previews by visual degradation placed pixels of the degraded words in the spaces between words—possibly reducing the informative value of the interword spaces. This Figure provides an example of an improved manipulation where the visual information of interword spacings is kept intact by restricting the visual degradation to the boundaries of the degraded words (compare with Figure 1).

Mentions: Thus, manipulating the salience of the preview is a sensitive method to study preview effects. However, the current manipulation of salience could probably be further improved. The applied method of visual degradation replaced the pixels of the bitmapped parafoveal word or mask to the white space around the letters without any particular restrictions. Thus, it happened that pixels from the first and the last letters of the target words were placed in the inter-word spaces (see Figure 1)—possibly diminishing the informative value of word length for eye movement control. We did not observe notably detrimental effects on the initial landing position in relation to our visual manipulation. We concede, however, that the manipulation could be adapted with this issue in mind. Figure 4 displays the same sentence as Figure 1. Similar to the current manipulation, pixels of upcoming words were displaced. The difference is that the displacement was restricted to the word boundaries and hence the inter-word spacings were not occupied by displaced pixels—retaining the information provided by the white spaces. Future studies on parafoveal preprocessing with the incremental boundary technique may resort to this particular manner of degradation, but even further improvements are conceivable.


An incremental boundary study on parafoveal preprocessing in children reading aloud: Parafoveal masks overestimate the preview benefit.

Marx C, Hawelka S, Schuster S, Hutzler F - J Cogn Psychol (Hove) (2015)

The current manipulation of the parafoveal previews by visual degradation placed pixels of the degraded words in the spaces between words—possibly reducing the informative value of the interword spaces. This Figure provides an example of an improved manipulation where the visual information of interword spacings is kept intact by restricting the visual degradation to the boundaries of the degraded words (compare with Figure 1).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487581&req=5

f0004: The current manipulation of the parafoveal previews by visual degradation placed pixels of the degraded words in the spaces between words—possibly reducing the informative value of the interword spaces. This Figure provides an example of an improved manipulation where the visual information of interword spacings is kept intact by restricting the visual degradation to the boundaries of the degraded words (compare with Figure 1).
Mentions: Thus, manipulating the salience of the preview is a sensitive method to study preview effects. However, the current manipulation of salience could probably be further improved. The applied method of visual degradation replaced the pixels of the bitmapped parafoveal word or mask to the white space around the letters without any particular restrictions. Thus, it happened that pixels from the first and the last letters of the target words were placed in the inter-word spaces (see Figure 1)—possibly diminishing the informative value of word length for eye movement control. We did not observe notably detrimental effects on the initial landing position in relation to our visual manipulation. We concede, however, that the manipulation could be adapted with this issue in mind. Figure 4 displays the same sentence as Figure 1. Similar to the current manipulation, pixels of upcoming words were displaced. The difference is that the displacement was restricted to the word boundaries and hence the inter-word spacings were not occupied by displaced pixels—retaining the information provided by the white spaces. Future studies on parafoveal preprocessing with the incremental boundary technique may resort to this particular manner of degradation, but even further improvements are conceivable.

Bottom Line: Recent studies, however, suggested that the benefit estimate is inflated due to interference of the parafoveal masks, i.e., the masks inflict processing costs.This technique does not require a baseline condition, but makes it possible to determine whether a preview induces facilitation or interference.With the novel incremental boundary technique, in contrast, one can achieve an accurate estimate of the preview benefit.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Salzburg , Salzburg , Austria.

ABSTRACT

Parafoveal preprocessing is an important factor for efficient reading and, in eye-movement studies, is typically investigated by means of parafoveal masking: Valid previews are compared to instances in which masks prevent preprocessing. A long-held assumption was that parafoveal preprocessing, as assessed by this technique, only reflects facilitation (i.e., a preview benefit). Recent studies, however, suggested that the benefit estimate is inflated due to interference of the parafoveal masks, i.e., the masks inflict processing costs. With children from Grades 4 and 6, we administered the novel incremental priming technique. The technique manipulates the salience of the previews by systematically varying its perceptibility (i.e., by visually degrading the previews). This technique does not require a baseline condition, but makes it possible to determine whether a preview induces facilitation or interference. Our salience manipulation of valid previews revealed a preview benefit in the children of both Grades. For two commonly used parafoveal masks, we observed interference corroborating the notion that masks are not a proper baseline. With the novel incremental boundary technique, in contrast, one can achieve an accurate estimate of the preview benefit.

No MeSH data available.