Limits...
The ecological determinants of baboon troop movements at local and continental scales.

Johnson C, Piel AK, Forman D, Stewart FA, King AJ - Mov Ecol (2015)

Bottom Line: We show that our continental-scale model is a good predictor of DPL in Issa baboons, and that troops move significantly slower, and over shorter distances, on warmer days.We do not find any effect of season or the abundance of fruit resources on the movement characteristics or DPL of Issa baboons, but find that baboons moved less during periods of high fruit availability.Overall, this study emphasises the ability of baboons to adapt their ranging behaviour to a range of ecological conditions and highlights how investigations of movement patterns at different spatial scales can provide a more thorough understanding of the ecological determinants of movement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biosciences, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea, UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: How an animal moves through its environment directly impacts its survival, reproduction, and thus biological fitness. A basic measure describing how an individual (or group) travels through its environment is Day Path Length (DPL), i.e., the distance travelled in a 24-hour period. Here, we investigate the ecological determinants of baboon (Papio spp.) troop DPL and movements at local and continental scales.

Results: At the continental scale we explore the ecological determinants of annual mean DPL for 47 baboon troops across 23 different populations, updating a classic study by Dunbar (Behav Ecol Sociobiol 31: 35-49, 1992). We find that variation in baboon DPLs is predicted by ecological dissimilarity across the genus range. Troops that experience higher average monthly rainfall and anthropogenic influences have significantly shorter DPL, whilst troops that live in areas with higher average annual temperatures have significantly longer DPL. We then explore DPLs and movement characteristics (the speed and distribution of turning angles) for yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) at a local scale, in the Issa Valley of western Tanzania. We show that our continental-scale model is a good predictor of DPL in Issa baboons, and that troops move significantly slower, and over shorter distances, on warmer days. We do not find any effect of season or the abundance of fruit resources on the movement characteristics or DPL of Issa baboons, but find that baboons moved less during periods of high fruit availability.

Conclusion: Overall, this study emphasises the ability of baboons to adapt their ranging behaviour to a range of ecological conditions and highlights how investigations of movement patterns at different spatial scales can provide a more thorough understanding of the ecological determinants of movement.

No MeSH data available.


Predicted DPL against observed DPL for baboons on a continental scale. Predicted DPL calculated from a best fitting model model considering the effects of average monthly rainfall, average annual temperature, and anthropogenic influence, for troops listed in Additional file 1. The straight line passing through (0,0) is a hypothetical perfect 1:1 fit between the model and data. Predictions from the model are for N = 47 troops with data for the Issa troops (Ugalla, current study) omitted; observed DPLs for the Issa troops are shown by filled diamonds.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487562&req=5

Fig5: Predicted DPL against observed DPL for baboons on a continental scale. Predicted DPL calculated from a best fitting model model considering the effects of average monthly rainfall, average annual temperature, and anthropogenic influence, for troops listed in Additional file 1. The straight line passing through (0,0) is a hypothetical perfect 1:1 fit between the model and data. Predictions from the model are for N = 47 troops with data for the Issa troops (Ugalla, current study) omitted; observed DPLs for the Issa troops are shown by filled diamonds.

Mentions: At a local scale, we found that the median DPL for CT and MT were 4.7 km (range: 3.1–8.5) and 4.3 km (range: 1.5–6.0) respectively (Figure 4), and there was not a statistical difference between the DPLs of the two troops (Mann Whitney U-test: nCT = 22, nMT = 12, P = 0.725). Comparison of these observed DPLs and those DPLs predicted by the best continental-level model (see above) that considers monthly rainfall, annual temperature, and anthropogenic influence, whilst accounting for population, revealed that the actual DPL of Issa baboons was similar to the predicted DPL (Figure 5). Therefore, it appears that yellow baboons at Issa are not atypical and the same ecological factors that impact on baboon troop DPLs throughout their range are also good predictors of Issa troops DPLs.Figure 4


The ecological determinants of baboon troop movements at local and continental scales.

Johnson C, Piel AK, Forman D, Stewart FA, King AJ - Mov Ecol (2015)

Predicted DPL against observed DPL for baboons on a continental scale. Predicted DPL calculated from a best fitting model model considering the effects of average monthly rainfall, average annual temperature, and anthropogenic influence, for troops listed in Additional file 1. The straight line passing through (0,0) is a hypothetical perfect 1:1 fit between the model and data. Predictions from the model are for N = 47 troops with data for the Issa troops (Ugalla, current study) omitted; observed DPLs for the Issa troops are shown by filled diamonds.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487562&req=5

Fig5: Predicted DPL against observed DPL for baboons on a continental scale. Predicted DPL calculated from a best fitting model model considering the effects of average monthly rainfall, average annual temperature, and anthropogenic influence, for troops listed in Additional file 1. The straight line passing through (0,0) is a hypothetical perfect 1:1 fit between the model and data. Predictions from the model are for N = 47 troops with data for the Issa troops (Ugalla, current study) omitted; observed DPLs for the Issa troops are shown by filled diamonds.
Mentions: At a local scale, we found that the median DPL for CT and MT were 4.7 km (range: 3.1–8.5) and 4.3 km (range: 1.5–6.0) respectively (Figure 4), and there was not a statistical difference between the DPLs of the two troops (Mann Whitney U-test: nCT = 22, nMT = 12, P = 0.725). Comparison of these observed DPLs and those DPLs predicted by the best continental-level model (see above) that considers monthly rainfall, annual temperature, and anthropogenic influence, whilst accounting for population, revealed that the actual DPL of Issa baboons was similar to the predicted DPL (Figure 5). Therefore, it appears that yellow baboons at Issa are not atypical and the same ecological factors that impact on baboon troop DPLs throughout their range are also good predictors of Issa troops DPLs.Figure 4

Bottom Line: We show that our continental-scale model is a good predictor of DPL in Issa baboons, and that troops move significantly slower, and over shorter distances, on warmer days.We do not find any effect of season or the abundance of fruit resources on the movement characteristics or DPL of Issa baboons, but find that baboons moved less during periods of high fruit availability.Overall, this study emphasises the ability of baboons to adapt their ranging behaviour to a range of ecological conditions and highlights how investigations of movement patterns at different spatial scales can provide a more thorough understanding of the ecological determinants of movement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biosciences, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea, UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: How an animal moves through its environment directly impacts its survival, reproduction, and thus biological fitness. A basic measure describing how an individual (or group) travels through its environment is Day Path Length (DPL), i.e., the distance travelled in a 24-hour period. Here, we investigate the ecological determinants of baboon (Papio spp.) troop DPL and movements at local and continental scales.

Results: At the continental scale we explore the ecological determinants of annual mean DPL for 47 baboon troops across 23 different populations, updating a classic study by Dunbar (Behav Ecol Sociobiol 31: 35-49, 1992). We find that variation in baboon DPLs is predicted by ecological dissimilarity across the genus range. Troops that experience higher average monthly rainfall and anthropogenic influences have significantly shorter DPL, whilst troops that live in areas with higher average annual temperatures have significantly longer DPL. We then explore DPLs and movement characteristics (the speed and distribution of turning angles) for yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) at a local scale, in the Issa Valley of western Tanzania. We show that our continental-scale model is a good predictor of DPL in Issa baboons, and that troops move significantly slower, and over shorter distances, on warmer days. We do not find any effect of season or the abundance of fruit resources on the movement characteristics or DPL of Issa baboons, but find that baboons moved less during periods of high fruit availability.

Conclusion: Overall, this study emphasises the ability of baboons to adapt their ranging behaviour to a range of ecological conditions and highlights how investigations of movement patterns at different spatial scales can provide a more thorough understanding of the ecological determinants of movement.

No MeSH data available.