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The ecological determinants of baboon troop movements at local and continental scales.

Johnson C, Piel AK, Forman D, Stewart FA, King AJ - Mov Ecol (2015)

Bottom Line: Troops that experience higher average monthly rainfall and anthropogenic influences have significantly shorter DPL, whilst troops that live in areas with higher average annual temperatures have significantly longer DPL.We show that our continental-scale model is a good predictor of DPL in Issa baboons, and that troops move significantly slower, and over shorter distances, on warmer days.We do not find any effect of season or the abundance of fruit resources on the movement characteristics or DPL of Issa baboons, but find that baboons moved less during periods of high fruit availability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biosciences, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea, UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: How an animal moves through its environment directly impacts its survival, reproduction, and thus biological fitness. A basic measure describing how an individual (or group) travels through its environment is Day Path Length (DPL), i.e., the distance travelled in a 24-hour period. Here, we investigate the ecological determinants of baboon (Papio spp.) troop DPL and movements at local and continental scales.

Results: At the continental scale we explore the ecological determinants of annual mean DPL for 47 baboon troops across 23 different populations, updating a classic study by Dunbar (Behav Ecol Sociobiol 31: 35-49, 1992). We find that variation in baboon DPLs is predicted by ecological dissimilarity across the genus range. Troops that experience higher average monthly rainfall and anthropogenic influences have significantly shorter DPL, whilst troops that live in areas with higher average annual temperatures have significantly longer DPL. We then explore DPLs and movement characteristics (the speed and distribution of turning angles) for yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) at a local scale, in the Issa Valley of western Tanzania. We show that our continental-scale model is a good predictor of DPL in Issa baboons, and that troops move significantly slower, and over shorter distances, on warmer days. We do not find any effect of season or the abundance of fruit resources on the movement characteristics or DPL of Issa baboons, but find that baboons moved less during periods of high fruit availability.

Conclusion: Overall, this study emphasises the ability of baboons to adapt their ranging behaviour to a range of ecological conditions and highlights how investigations of movement patterns at different spatial scales can provide a more thorough understanding of the ecological determinants of movement.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Fruit abundance. Fruit abundance at Issa for duration of study period. The dashed line represents the division between seasons.
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Fig2: Fruit abundance. Fruit abundance at Issa for duration of study period. The dashed line represents the division between seasons.

Mentions: Whilst baboons rely on a variety of food sources [40], fruit comprises a large portion of their diet [12,33,37-40,76-80] and is selected for when available [9]. We therefore utilised a pre-established phenology transect, that intersected the miombo woodland habitat, that was 1.7 km in length and 10 m in width and was fully contained within the home range of CT. Only woody plants known to produce fruits or seed pods that were consumed by the baboons and that were ≥ 2 m in height with a diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm were monitored. This resulted in a total of 288 shrubs, lianas and trees from 17 species. The transect was walked every month for the duration of the study period, and the presence/absence of fruit or seed pods for each plant was noted [81]. Fruit abundance (we use this as a proxy for fruits and seed pods combined) was then estimated with a commonly used measure, the monthly fruit abundance index (FAIm) [82-85]:\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ FA{I}_m={\displaystyle \sum_{k=1}^n}{D}_k{B}_k{P}_{km} $$\end{document}FAIm=∑k=1nDkBkPkmwhere Dk is the density of species k per km2, Bk is the mean DBH of species k, and Pkm is the percentage of trees of species k in a fruiting condition in a month m (Figure 2).Figure 2


The ecological determinants of baboon troop movements at local and continental scales.

Johnson C, Piel AK, Forman D, Stewart FA, King AJ - Mov Ecol (2015)

Fruit abundance. Fruit abundance at Issa for duration of study period. The dashed line represents the division between seasons.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487562&req=5

Fig2: Fruit abundance. Fruit abundance at Issa for duration of study period. The dashed line represents the division between seasons.
Mentions: Whilst baboons rely on a variety of food sources [40], fruit comprises a large portion of their diet [12,33,37-40,76-80] and is selected for when available [9]. We therefore utilised a pre-established phenology transect, that intersected the miombo woodland habitat, that was 1.7 km in length and 10 m in width and was fully contained within the home range of CT. Only woody plants known to produce fruits or seed pods that were consumed by the baboons and that were ≥ 2 m in height with a diameter at breast height ≥ 5 cm were monitored. This resulted in a total of 288 shrubs, lianas and trees from 17 species. The transect was walked every month for the duration of the study period, and the presence/absence of fruit or seed pods for each plant was noted [81]. Fruit abundance (we use this as a proxy for fruits and seed pods combined) was then estimated with a commonly used measure, the monthly fruit abundance index (FAIm) [82-85]:\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$ FA{I}_m={\displaystyle \sum_{k=1}^n}{D}_k{B}_k{P}_{km} $$\end{document}FAIm=∑k=1nDkBkPkmwhere Dk is the density of species k per km2, Bk is the mean DBH of species k, and Pkm is the percentage of trees of species k in a fruiting condition in a month m (Figure 2).Figure 2

Bottom Line: Troops that experience higher average monthly rainfall and anthropogenic influences have significantly shorter DPL, whilst troops that live in areas with higher average annual temperatures have significantly longer DPL.We show that our continental-scale model is a good predictor of DPL in Issa baboons, and that troops move significantly slower, and over shorter distances, on warmer days.We do not find any effect of season or the abundance of fruit resources on the movement characteristics or DPL of Issa baboons, but find that baboons moved less during periods of high fruit availability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biosciences, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea, UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: How an animal moves through its environment directly impacts its survival, reproduction, and thus biological fitness. A basic measure describing how an individual (or group) travels through its environment is Day Path Length (DPL), i.e., the distance travelled in a 24-hour period. Here, we investigate the ecological determinants of baboon (Papio spp.) troop DPL and movements at local and continental scales.

Results: At the continental scale we explore the ecological determinants of annual mean DPL for 47 baboon troops across 23 different populations, updating a classic study by Dunbar (Behav Ecol Sociobiol 31: 35-49, 1992). We find that variation in baboon DPLs is predicted by ecological dissimilarity across the genus range. Troops that experience higher average monthly rainfall and anthropogenic influences have significantly shorter DPL, whilst troops that live in areas with higher average annual temperatures have significantly longer DPL. We then explore DPLs and movement characteristics (the speed and distribution of turning angles) for yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) at a local scale, in the Issa Valley of western Tanzania. We show that our continental-scale model is a good predictor of DPL in Issa baboons, and that troops move significantly slower, and over shorter distances, on warmer days. We do not find any effect of season or the abundance of fruit resources on the movement characteristics or DPL of Issa baboons, but find that baboons moved less during periods of high fruit availability.

Conclusion: Overall, this study emphasises the ability of baboons to adapt their ranging behaviour to a range of ecological conditions and highlights how investigations of movement patterns at different spatial scales can provide a more thorough understanding of the ecological determinants of movement.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus