Limits...
Emergence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in southern Germany.

Stadler J, Zoels S, Fux R, Hanke D, Pohlmann A, Blome S, Weissenböck H, Weissenbacher-Lang C, Ritzmann M, Ladinig A - BMC Vet. Res. (2015)

Bottom Line: In the fattening farm yellowish, watery diarrhea without evidence of mucus or blood was associated with a massive reduction of feed consumption.Slightly lower identities were found with other strains from the US and Asia.Current strains were clearly different from isolates found in the 1980s and were closely related to a PEDV variant found in the US in 2014.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinic for Swine at the Centre for Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Oberschleissheim, Germany. j.stadler@med.vetmed.uni-muenchen.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: Over the last years, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused devastating enteric diseases in the US and several countries in Asia, while outbreaks in Europe have only been reported sporadically since the 1980s. At present, only insufficient information is available on currently circulating PEDV strains in Europe and their impact on the European swine industry. In this case report, we present epidemic outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea in three farms in South-Western Germany.

Case presentation: Epidemic outbreaks of diarrhea affecting pigs of all age groups were reported in three farms, one fattening farm and two piglet producing farms, in South-Western Germany between May and November 2014. In the fattening farm yellowish, watery diarrhea without evidence of mucus or blood was associated with a massive reduction of feed consumption. Severity of clinical signs and mortality in young suckling pigs varied significantly between the two affected sow farms. While mortality in suckling piglets reached almost 70 % in one sow herd, no increase in suckling piglet mortality was observed in the second sow farm. In all three cases, PEDV was confirmed in feces and small intestines by RT-qPCR. Phylogenetic analyses based on full-length PEDV genomes revealed high identity among strains from all three herds. Moreover, the German strains showed very high nucleotide identity (99.4 %) with a variant of PEDV (OH851) that was isolated in the United States in January 2014. This strain with insertions and deletions in the S-gene (so called INDEL strains) was reported to show lower virulence. Slightly lower identities were found with other strains from the US and Asia.

Conclusion: Phylogenetic information on the distribution of PEDV strains in Europe is severely lacking. In this case report we demonstrate that acute outbreaks of PEDV occurred in southern Germany in 2014. Current strains were clearly different from isolates found in the 1980s and were closely related to a PEDV variant found in the US in 2014. Moreover, the present case report indicates that variant strains of PEDV, containing insertions and deletions in the S gene, which were reported to be of lower virulence, might be able to cause high mortality in suckling piglets.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic tree of current German PEDV strains compared with strains from the United States and China. Full genome sequences of German PEDV strains were aligned using MAFFT, and phylogenetic analyses were carried out using the maximum-likelihood method PhyML [22] with a GTR substitution model and tree reconstruction supported by 1000 bootstrapping replicates. All tools implemented in Geneious (vs. 8.0.5, Biomatters [30]). Strain derived from farm A are found as BH76/14, from farm B as K14/14, and farm C as K16/14
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487554&req=5

Fig5: Phylogenetic tree of current German PEDV strains compared with strains from the United States and China. Full genome sequences of German PEDV strains were aligned using MAFFT, and phylogenetic analyses were carried out using the maximum-likelihood method PhyML [22] with a GTR substitution model and tree reconstruction supported by 1000 bootstrapping replicates. All tools implemented in Geneious (vs. 8.0.5, Biomatters [30]). Strain derived from farm A are found as BH76/14, from farm B as K14/14, and farm C as K16/14

Mentions: Selected positive fecal samples from all three farms were submitted to the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Isle of Riems, Germany for full genome sequencing and virus isolation. PEDV was successfully isolated from one fecal sample of farm A following the protocol published by Oka et al. [20] with slight modifications. Supplemental investigations are ongoing. Full-length genomes were determined using next-generation sequencing as previously described [21]. Nucleotide sequence alignment analysis of the full-length genomes revealed up to 98.7 % nucleotide identities with currently circulating highly virulent US strains and strains from China. Highest similarity existed to the so-called S INDEL strains described in the US [10]. The German PEDV strains shared approx. 99.4 % identity with those strains (OH 851 as an INDEL prototype strain). Much lower overall similarity was found between the current German S INDEL strains and the European isolate CV777 from the late 1970s. Phylogenetic trees were constructed for complete genomes and Spike protein sequences using PhyML [22] in the Geneious software suite with a GTR substitution model and supported by 1000 bootstrapping replicates. Since the phylogenetic tree based on the Spike gene did not add more information than obtained from the full-length tree we decided not to include it in the manuscript. All German isolates clustered together and with OH 851 (Fig. 5). Based on the data obtained from all three farms no recombination events were observed.Fig. 5


Emergence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in southern Germany.

Stadler J, Zoels S, Fux R, Hanke D, Pohlmann A, Blome S, Weissenböck H, Weissenbacher-Lang C, Ritzmann M, Ladinig A - BMC Vet. Res. (2015)

Phylogenetic tree of current German PEDV strains compared with strains from the United States and China. Full genome sequences of German PEDV strains were aligned using MAFFT, and phylogenetic analyses were carried out using the maximum-likelihood method PhyML [22] with a GTR substitution model and tree reconstruction supported by 1000 bootstrapping replicates. All tools implemented in Geneious (vs. 8.0.5, Biomatters [30]). Strain derived from farm A are found as BH76/14, from farm B as K14/14, and farm C as K16/14
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487554&req=5

Fig5: Phylogenetic tree of current German PEDV strains compared with strains from the United States and China. Full genome sequences of German PEDV strains were aligned using MAFFT, and phylogenetic analyses were carried out using the maximum-likelihood method PhyML [22] with a GTR substitution model and tree reconstruction supported by 1000 bootstrapping replicates. All tools implemented in Geneious (vs. 8.0.5, Biomatters [30]). Strain derived from farm A are found as BH76/14, from farm B as K14/14, and farm C as K16/14
Mentions: Selected positive fecal samples from all three farms were submitted to the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Isle of Riems, Germany for full genome sequencing and virus isolation. PEDV was successfully isolated from one fecal sample of farm A following the protocol published by Oka et al. [20] with slight modifications. Supplemental investigations are ongoing. Full-length genomes were determined using next-generation sequencing as previously described [21]. Nucleotide sequence alignment analysis of the full-length genomes revealed up to 98.7 % nucleotide identities with currently circulating highly virulent US strains and strains from China. Highest similarity existed to the so-called S INDEL strains described in the US [10]. The German PEDV strains shared approx. 99.4 % identity with those strains (OH 851 as an INDEL prototype strain). Much lower overall similarity was found between the current German S INDEL strains and the European isolate CV777 from the late 1970s. Phylogenetic trees were constructed for complete genomes and Spike protein sequences using PhyML [22] in the Geneious software suite with a GTR substitution model and supported by 1000 bootstrapping replicates. Since the phylogenetic tree based on the Spike gene did not add more information than obtained from the full-length tree we decided not to include it in the manuscript. All German isolates clustered together and with OH 851 (Fig. 5). Based on the data obtained from all three farms no recombination events were observed.Fig. 5

Bottom Line: In the fattening farm yellowish, watery diarrhea without evidence of mucus or blood was associated with a massive reduction of feed consumption.Slightly lower identities were found with other strains from the US and Asia.Current strains were clearly different from isolates found in the 1980s and were closely related to a PEDV variant found in the US in 2014.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinic for Swine at the Centre for Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Oberschleissheim, Germany. j.stadler@med.vetmed.uni-muenchen.de.

ABSTRACT

Background: Over the last years, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has caused devastating enteric diseases in the US and several countries in Asia, while outbreaks in Europe have only been reported sporadically since the 1980s. At present, only insufficient information is available on currently circulating PEDV strains in Europe and their impact on the European swine industry. In this case report, we present epidemic outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea in three farms in South-Western Germany.

Case presentation: Epidemic outbreaks of diarrhea affecting pigs of all age groups were reported in three farms, one fattening farm and two piglet producing farms, in South-Western Germany between May and November 2014. In the fattening farm yellowish, watery diarrhea without evidence of mucus or blood was associated with a massive reduction of feed consumption. Severity of clinical signs and mortality in young suckling pigs varied significantly between the two affected sow farms. While mortality in suckling piglets reached almost 70 % in one sow herd, no increase in suckling piglet mortality was observed in the second sow farm. In all three cases, PEDV was confirmed in feces and small intestines by RT-qPCR. Phylogenetic analyses based on full-length PEDV genomes revealed high identity among strains from all three herds. Moreover, the German strains showed very high nucleotide identity (99.4 %) with a variant of PEDV (OH851) that was isolated in the United States in January 2014. This strain with insertions and deletions in the S-gene (so called INDEL strains) was reported to show lower virulence. Slightly lower identities were found with other strains from the US and Asia.

Conclusion: Phylogenetic information on the distribution of PEDV strains in Europe is severely lacking. In this case report we demonstrate that acute outbreaks of PEDV occurred in southern Germany in 2014. Current strains were clearly different from isolates found in the 1980s and were closely related to a PEDV variant found in the US in 2014. Moreover, the present case report indicates that variant strains of PEDV, containing insertions and deletions in the S gene, which were reported to be of lower virulence, might be able to cause high mortality in suckling piglets.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus