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Google Calendar: A single case experimental design study of a man with severe memory problems.

Baldwin VN, Powell T - Neuropsychol Rehabil (2014)

Bottom Line: A single case experimental design across behaviours was utilised to explore the effectiveness of Google Calendar text alerts delivered to a mobile phone as a memory aid.A subjective measure (the revised Everyday Memory Questionnaire) also suggested improvement.This study illustrates that Google Calendar is a highly effective memory aid and emphasises the importance of choosing a memory aid to suit the person's lifestyle and beliefs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: a School of Psychology , University of Birmingham , Birmingham , UK.

ABSTRACT
A single case experimental design across behaviours was utilised to explore the effectiveness of Google Calendar text alerts delivered to a mobile phone as a memory aid. The participant was a 43-year-old man (JA) with severe memory problems and executive difficulties caused by a traumatic brain injury (TBI). JA was initially very unwilling to use any memory aid and so a detailed assessment of his beliefs about memory aids, his cognitive difficulties and his social context was performed and a set of specifications for an aid was produced collaboratively. Six weeks of baseline data and six weeks of intervention data were collected for three target memory behaviours and three control memory behaviours. Results were analysed using nonoverlap of all pairs (NAP) analysis which showed a reduction in forgetting in the three target behaviours and no change in two of the three control behaviours. A subjective measure (the revised Everyday Memory Questionnaire) also suggested improvement. This study illustrates that Google Calendar is a highly effective memory aid and emphasises the importance of choosing a memory aid to suit the person's lifestyle and beliefs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Target events JA would have forgotten if not reminded. A = Baseline Phase, B = Intervention Phase, n.b. Week 7 = trial week.
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Figure 0002: Target events JA would have forgotten if not reminded. A = Baseline Phase, B = Intervention Phase, n.b. Week 7 = trial week.

Mentions: The total number of target events was 38 in baseline and 22 in the intervention phase; the total number of control events was 42 (including all control events) in the baseline and 35 in the intervention. Tate et al. (2008) suggest that the effectiveness of a treatment should be demonstrated both statistically and visually for single case experimental design (SCED) studies. NAP analysis was therefore utilised. In order to calculate NAP, all target behaviours (i.e., all appointments, days attending the rehabilitation service and days attending the Mosque) were collated to create a total events score for each week. The number of times these events were forgotten was then calculated as a percentage of total events. NAP analysis was used to determine performance change between baseline (phase A) and intervention (phase B) which is shown in the plot of events in Figure 1. NAP analysis revealed there was a 90% improvement in performance between baseline and intervention for the number of target events forgotten ­– Total non-overlap/Total possible pairs×100 = NAP% (32.5/36 = 0.90×100 = 90%). There was also a 100% change in performance for target events that JA would have forgotten if he had not been reminded – Total non-overlap/Total possible pairs×100 = NAP% (36/36 = 1×100 = 100%) as shown in Figure 2. At week 11 during the intervention (Phase B) there is a sudden increase in forgetting events to 33% (see Figure 1) because JA's phone was mislaid and he was not able to receive any text message reminders. Once it was found, JA did not forget any other events for the remainder of the intervention phase.Figure 1.


Google Calendar: A single case experimental design study of a man with severe memory problems.

Baldwin VN, Powell T - Neuropsychol Rehabil (2014)

Target events JA would have forgotten if not reminded. A = Baseline Phase, B = Intervention Phase, n.b. Week 7 = trial week.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487547&req=5

Figure 0002: Target events JA would have forgotten if not reminded. A = Baseline Phase, B = Intervention Phase, n.b. Week 7 = trial week.
Mentions: The total number of target events was 38 in baseline and 22 in the intervention phase; the total number of control events was 42 (including all control events) in the baseline and 35 in the intervention. Tate et al. (2008) suggest that the effectiveness of a treatment should be demonstrated both statistically and visually for single case experimental design (SCED) studies. NAP analysis was therefore utilised. In order to calculate NAP, all target behaviours (i.e., all appointments, days attending the rehabilitation service and days attending the Mosque) were collated to create a total events score for each week. The number of times these events were forgotten was then calculated as a percentage of total events. NAP analysis was used to determine performance change between baseline (phase A) and intervention (phase B) which is shown in the plot of events in Figure 1. NAP analysis revealed there was a 90% improvement in performance between baseline and intervention for the number of target events forgotten ­– Total non-overlap/Total possible pairs×100 = NAP% (32.5/36 = 0.90×100 = 90%). There was also a 100% change in performance for target events that JA would have forgotten if he had not been reminded – Total non-overlap/Total possible pairs×100 = NAP% (36/36 = 1×100 = 100%) as shown in Figure 2. At week 11 during the intervention (Phase B) there is a sudden increase in forgetting events to 33% (see Figure 1) because JA's phone was mislaid and he was not able to receive any text message reminders. Once it was found, JA did not forget any other events for the remainder of the intervention phase.Figure 1.

Bottom Line: A single case experimental design across behaviours was utilised to explore the effectiveness of Google Calendar text alerts delivered to a mobile phone as a memory aid.A subjective measure (the revised Everyday Memory Questionnaire) also suggested improvement.This study illustrates that Google Calendar is a highly effective memory aid and emphasises the importance of choosing a memory aid to suit the person's lifestyle and beliefs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: a School of Psychology , University of Birmingham , Birmingham , UK.

ABSTRACT
A single case experimental design across behaviours was utilised to explore the effectiveness of Google Calendar text alerts delivered to a mobile phone as a memory aid. The participant was a 43-year-old man (JA) with severe memory problems and executive difficulties caused by a traumatic brain injury (TBI). JA was initially very unwilling to use any memory aid and so a detailed assessment of his beliefs about memory aids, his cognitive difficulties and his social context was performed and a set of specifications for an aid was produced collaboratively. Six weeks of baseline data and six weeks of intervention data were collected for three target memory behaviours and three control memory behaviours. Results were analysed using nonoverlap of all pairs (NAP) analysis which showed a reduction in forgetting in the three target behaviours and no change in two of the three control behaviours. A subjective measure (the revised Everyday Memory Questionnaire) also suggested improvement. This study illustrates that Google Calendar is a highly effective memory aid and emphasises the importance of choosing a memory aid to suit the person's lifestyle and beliefs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus