The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases.
Bottom Line: The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as 'dysbiosis').Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. 'Dysbiosis' is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues.To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term 'atopobiosis' for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location.
Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Arcadia 0007, South Africa.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Direct measurement by ultrastructural (microscopic) methods of analysis shows that microbes are in fact common constituents of blood in inflammatory diseases [previously seen in PD—Fig. 8 in (Pretorius et al.2014a and in AD—Fig. 2 in (Lipinski and Pretorius 2013). We show and annotate selected micrographs from these papers in Fig. 4]. An important concern that needs to be addressed, as is also the case with sequence-based methods, is whether the presence of microbiota in whole blood is indeed not the result of introduced external contamination. There is in fact considerable evidence in the literature that bacteria as well as other microorganisms can reside inside RBCs (e.g. Minasyan 2014), and thus able to cross the RBC membrane somehow (see Table 5). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showing bacteria inside cells would also tend to imply that the bacteria were not externally introduced artefactually during the preparation of the samples.
Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Arcadia 0007, South Africa.