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The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases.

Potgieter M, Bester J, Kell DB, Pretorius E - FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (2015)

Bottom Line: The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as 'dysbiosis').Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. 'Dysbiosis' is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues.To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term 'atopobiosis' for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Arcadia 0007, South Africa.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

RBCs with microbiota from patients with diagnosed AD (additional micrographs from sample used in Lipinski and Pretorius 2013). These micrographs are representative of bacteria found in smears of 14 of the 30 AD individuals. (A and B) coccus-shaped bacteria associated with white blood cell; (B) coccus-shaped bacteria associated with an erythrocyte and white blood cell; (C) two white blood cells associated with coccus-shaped bacteria; (D) a string of cocci-blue arrow shows possibly dividing coccoid bacteria; (E) an erythrocyte associated with coccus-shaped bacteria; (F) a high machine magnification of a coccus-shaped bacteria associated with a dense matted fibrin deposit. Scale bar: 1 μm.
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fig5: RBCs with microbiota from patients with diagnosed AD (additional micrographs from sample used in Lipinski and Pretorius 2013). These micrographs are representative of bacteria found in smears of 14 of the 30 AD individuals. (A and B) coccus-shaped bacteria associated with white blood cell; (B) coccus-shaped bacteria associated with an erythrocyte and white blood cell; (C) two white blood cells associated with coccus-shaped bacteria; (D) a string of cocci-blue arrow shows possibly dividing coccoid bacteria; (E) an erythrocyte associated with coccus-shaped bacteria; (F) a high machine magnification of a coccus-shaped bacteria associated with a dense matted fibrin deposit. Scale bar: 1 μm.

Mentions: For the current paper, we have revisited our AD and PD samples and figures from Pretorius et al. (2014a) and Lipinski and Pretorius (2013) and noted the prevalence of bacteria in almost all of the AD and PD samples, in numbers much in excess of those seen in our database of thousands micrographs from healthy individuals. Here we show additional micrographs from the previously published samples (see Figs 5 and 6). In both conditions (see Figs 5AD and 6PD), microbes were noted in close proximity to RBCs, and in some cases RBCs extended pseudopodia-like projections towards the microbiota. SEM analysis of AD whole blood (Fig. 5) shows that mostly coccus-shaped bacteria are present. White blood cells are seen in close proximity to these bacteria in AD patients (see Fig. 5A–C). SEM analyses of PD patients (Fig. 6) show both coccus- and bacillus-shaped bacteria in close proximity to RBCs. We also observed that RBCs extend pseudopodia towards these bacteria and this might be part of the mechanism by which the bacteria enter the RBCs (see Fig. 6C–F). We also note possibly dividing coccus-shaped bacteria in both these conditions, indicated with blue arrows on Fig. 5A (AD patient) and Fig. 6D (PD patient). This might suggest that these bacteria may be(come) culturable under appropriate conditions (see also Soina et al.2012; Epstein 2013).


The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases.

Potgieter M, Bester J, Kell DB, Pretorius E - FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (2015)

RBCs with microbiota from patients with diagnosed AD (additional micrographs from sample used in Lipinski and Pretorius 2013). These micrographs are representative of bacteria found in smears of 14 of the 30 AD individuals. (A and B) coccus-shaped bacteria associated with white blood cell; (B) coccus-shaped bacteria associated with an erythrocyte and white blood cell; (C) two white blood cells associated with coccus-shaped bacteria; (D) a string of cocci-blue arrow shows possibly dividing coccoid bacteria; (E) an erythrocyte associated with coccus-shaped bacteria; (F) a high machine magnification of a coccus-shaped bacteria associated with a dense matted fibrin deposit. Scale bar: 1 μm.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487407&req=5

fig5: RBCs with microbiota from patients with diagnosed AD (additional micrographs from sample used in Lipinski and Pretorius 2013). These micrographs are representative of bacteria found in smears of 14 of the 30 AD individuals. (A and B) coccus-shaped bacteria associated with white blood cell; (B) coccus-shaped bacteria associated with an erythrocyte and white blood cell; (C) two white blood cells associated with coccus-shaped bacteria; (D) a string of cocci-blue arrow shows possibly dividing coccoid bacteria; (E) an erythrocyte associated with coccus-shaped bacteria; (F) a high machine magnification of a coccus-shaped bacteria associated with a dense matted fibrin deposit. Scale bar: 1 μm.
Mentions: For the current paper, we have revisited our AD and PD samples and figures from Pretorius et al. (2014a) and Lipinski and Pretorius (2013) and noted the prevalence of bacteria in almost all of the AD and PD samples, in numbers much in excess of those seen in our database of thousands micrographs from healthy individuals. Here we show additional micrographs from the previously published samples (see Figs 5 and 6). In both conditions (see Figs 5AD and 6PD), microbes were noted in close proximity to RBCs, and in some cases RBCs extended pseudopodia-like projections towards the microbiota. SEM analysis of AD whole blood (Fig. 5) shows that mostly coccus-shaped bacteria are present. White blood cells are seen in close proximity to these bacteria in AD patients (see Fig. 5A–C). SEM analyses of PD patients (Fig. 6) show both coccus- and bacillus-shaped bacteria in close proximity to RBCs. We also observed that RBCs extend pseudopodia towards these bacteria and this might be part of the mechanism by which the bacteria enter the RBCs (see Fig. 6C–F). We also note possibly dividing coccus-shaped bacteria in both these conditions, indicated with blue arrows on Fig. 5A (AD patient) and Fig. 6D (PD patient). This might suggest that these bacteria may be(come) culturable under appropriate conditions (see also Soina et al.2012; Epstein 2013).

Bottom Line: The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as 'dysbiosis').Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. 'Dysbiosis' is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues.To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term 'atopobiosis' for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Arcadia 0007, South Africa.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus