The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases.
Bottom Line: The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as 'dysbiosis').Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. 'Dysbiosis' is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues.To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term 'atopobiosis' for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location.
Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Arcadia 0007, South Africa.Show MeSH
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Mentions: For the current paper, we have revisited our AD and PD samples and figures from Pretorius et al. (2014a) and Lipinski and Pretorius (2013) and noted the prevalence of bacteria in almost all of the AD and PD samples, in numbers much in excess of those seen in our database of thousands micrographs from healthy individuals. Here we show additional micrographs from the previously published samples (see Figs 5 and 6). In both conditions (see Figs 5AD and 6PD), microbes were noted in close proximity to RBCs, and in some cases RBCs extended pseudopodia-like projections towards the microbiota. SEM analysis of AD whole blood (Fig. 5) shows that mostly coccus-shaped bacteria are present. White blood cells are seen in close proximity to these bacteria in AD patients (see Fig. 5A–C). SEM analyses of PD patients (Fig. 6) show both coccus- and bacillus-shaped bacteria in close proximity to RBCs. We also observed that RBCs extend pseudopodia towards these bacteria and this might be part of the mechanism by which the bacteria enter the RBCs (see Fig. 6C–F). We also note possibly dividing coccus-shaped bacteria in both these conditions, indicated with blue arrows on Fig. 5A (AD patient) and Fig. 6D (PD patient). This might suggest that these bacteria may be(come) culturable under appropriate conditions (see also Soina et al.2012; Epstein 2013).
Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Arcadia 0007, South Africa.