The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases.
Bottom Line: The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as 'dysbiosis').Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. 'Dysbiosis' is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues.To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term 'atopobiosis' for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location.
Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Arcadia 0007, South Africa.Show MeSH
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Mentions: In addition, we argue here that as well as gut dysbiosis, a derangement of the gut microbiome, what we are seeing here, often called ‘translocation’ in the context of surgery (Swank and Deitch 1996; MacFie 2004) and various diseases (Berg 1995) (see Table 4 that lists diseases and conditions where bacterial translocation is specifically implicated), is what might better be called atopobiosis (Greek ατoπoς or atopos, in the wrong place), i.e. an appearance of members of the gut (or other) microbiome in the wrong place. Bacterial translocation is therefore discussed in the context of the movement of gut origin microbes [that changed from normal (dysbiosis)] that moved across the ‘intact’ gastrointestinal tract into normally sterile tissues, including blood, where the organisms may then directly cause infection or inflammation leading to tissue injury, organ failure, etc. (Steinberg 2003; Wiest and Rath 2003; Balzan et al.2007). We stress that they may be found in both infectious and non-infectious diseases as well as being translocated during surgery, and that atopobiosis of bacteria originating in the oral cavity, e.g. in periodontal disease, may also be significant in rheumatoid arthritis, for instance (see below). Fig. 3 provides a schematic representation of dysbiosis, bacterial translocation and atopobiosis.
Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Arcadia 0007, South Africa.