The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases.
Bottom Line: The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as 'dysbiosis').Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. 'Dysbiosis' is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues.To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term 'atopobiosis' for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location.
Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Arcadia 0007, South Africa.Show MeSH
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Mentions: A lack of culturability may mean that a cell is non-viable under the circumstances tested, but viability or non-viability are not the only two possible states here. An apparent non-culturability of a surviving cell also admits another possibility, for which the natural term is ‘dormant’ (Kaprelyants, Gottschal and Kell 1993; Epstein 2013). This is that the cell is not presently culturable (viable), but it is not ‘dead’ (in the sense of an operationally irreversible loss of viability) in that it may be induced to return to a state of culturability (by a process or processes typically referred to as ‘resuscitation’). This also means that the term ‘viable-but-non-culturable’, while quite common in use, is in fact an oxymoron that is to be discouraged (Kell et al.1998). The eminent microbial physiologist Howard Gest is similarly scathing about the term ‘unculturable’ (Gest 2008), noting that one just needs to try harder to culture organisms. Table 1 shows the three terms best suited to discuss these issues, while Fig. 2 shows a diagrammatic representation of the macroscopic physiological microbial states we mostly consider.
Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Arcadia 0007, South Africa.