The dormant blood microbiome in chronic, inflammatory diseases.
Bottom Line: The chief origin of these microbes is the gut microbiome (especially when it shifts composition to a pathogenic state, known as 'dysbiosis').Another source is microbes translocated from the oral cavity. 'Dysbiosis' is also used to describe translocation of cells into blood or other tissues.To avoid ambiguity, we here use the term 'atopobiosis' for microbes that appear in places other than their normal location.
Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Arcadia 0007, South Africa.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Over the years, a variety of diseases that were previously considered non-communicable have been found to have a microbial component, the role of Helicobacter pylori in ulcerogenesis (Marshall and Warren 1984) being a particularly well-known example. There have also been hints for a microbial component to many other non-communicable diseases, but culturing the relevant organisms has rarely been successful. However, there is increasing recognition that microbes may be present in forms that are not easily culturable, and a number of recent articles have brought these possibilities more sharply into focus. Our aim is to review these developments. The manuscript structure is shown in Fig. 1.
Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Arcadia 0007, South Africa.