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Weathering Patterns of Ignitable Liquids with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method.

Bruno TJ, Allen S - J Res Natl Inst Stand Technol (2013)

Bottom Line: In this paper, we present results on a variety of ignitable liquids that are not commodity fuels, chosen from the Ignitable Liquids Reference Collection (ILRC).These measurements are assembled into a preliminary database.From this selection, we discuss the significance and forensic application of the temperature data grid and the composition explicit data channel of the ADC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305.

ABSTRACT
One can take advantage of the striking similarity of ignitable liquid vaporization (or weathering) patterns and the separation observed during distillation to predict the composition of residual compounds in fire debris. This is done with the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. Analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, Karl Fischer coulombic titrimetry, refractometry, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. We have applied this method on product streams such as finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this paper, we present results on a variety of ignitable liquids that are not commodity fuels, chosen from the Ignitable Liquids Reference Collection (ILRC). These measurements are assembled into a preliminary database. From this selection, we discuss the significance and forensic application of the temperature data grid and the composition explicit data channel of the ADC.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Distillation curves of 91 AI winter quarter gasoline and that gasoline in the presence of wood chips and chopped carpet.
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f9-jres.118.003: Distillation curves of 91 AI winter quarter gasoline and that gasoline in the presence of wood chips and chopped carpet.

Mentions: We conclude the description of our results with a preliminary observation regarding the presence of an ignitable liquid on a substrate. In an effort to approximate the effect of the substrate on the temperature data grid of the distillation curve, we performed distillations of the 91 AI summer grade gasoline in the presence of wood chips and coarsely chopped carpet. The wood chips we used were randomly shaped slivers of dried hickory, with a size ranging from 1 – 2 cm on edge, approximately 0.5 cm thick. The carpet with its underlayment was cut with a scissor from a remnant, into squares of approximately 1 cm on edge. Distillations were performed in the usual manner, with 200 mL of the gasoline, into which approximately 3.7 g of either the wood chips or the chopped carpet were added. This resulted in a solids mass fraction of 2.5 %. These quantities of solids do not impede the function of the stirrer, thus no additional uncertainty is introduced into the temperature measurement. Typical distillation curves measured for these tests are provided in Fig. 9, in which we present measurements with a 91 AI gasoline. This fluid was chosen because of its wide boiling temperature range. We note that the major effect of the substrate was to decrease the measured distillation temperatures by between 1 and 3 °C. This lowering appears to be more pronounced with the carpet than with the wood, although the uncertainty of the measurements prevents a definitive conclusion in this regard. It is likely that this observation results from the increased number of nucleation sites available to the gasoline in the presence of the substrate. This allows a faster rate of vaporization for a given heat input (through the aluminum enclosure surrounding the distillation flask).


Weathering Patterns of Ignitable Liquids with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method.

Bruno TJ, Allen S - J Res Natl Inst Stand Technol (2013)

Distillation curves of 91 AI winter quarter gasoline and that gasoline in the presence of wood chips and chopped carpet.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487305&req=5

f9-jres.118.003: Distillation curves of 91 AI winter quarter gasoline and that gasoline in the presence of wood chips and chopped carpet.
Mentions: We conclude the description of our results with a preliminary observation regarding the presence of an ignitable liquid on a substrate. In an effort to approximate the effect of the substrate on the temperature data grid of the distillation curve, we performed distillations of the 91 AI summer grade gasoline in the presence of wood chips and coarsely chopped carpet. The wood chips we used were randomly shaped slivers of dried hickory, with a size ranging from 1 – 2 cm on edge, approximately 0.5 cm thick. The carpet with its underlayment was cut with a scissor from a remnant, into squares of approximately 1 cm on edge. Distillations were performed in the usual manner, with 200 mL of the gasoline, into which approximately 3.7 g of either the wood chips or the chopped carpet were added. This resulted in a solids mass fraction of 2.5 %. These quantities of solids do not impede the function of the stirrer, thus no additional uncertainty is introduced into the temperature measurement. Typical distillation curves measured for these tests are provided in Fig. 9, in which we present measurements with a 91 AI gasoline. This fluid was chosen because of its wide boiling temperature range. We note that the major effect of the substrate was to decrease the measured distillation temperatures by between 1 and 3 °C. This lowering appears to be more pronounced with the carpet than with the wood, although the uncertainty of the measurements prevents a definitive conclusion in this regard. It is likely that this observation results from the increased number of nucleation sites available to the gasoline in the presence of the substrate. This allows a faster rate of vaporization for a given heat input (through the aluminum enclosure surrounding the distillation flask).

Bottom Line: In this paper, we present results on a variety of ignitable liquids that are not commodity fuels, chosen from the Ignitable Liquids Reference Collection (ILRC).These measurements are assembled into a preliminary database.From this selection, we discuss the significance and forensic application of the temperature data grid and the composition explicit data channel of the ADC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305.

ABSTRACT
One can take advantage of the striking similarity of ignitable liquid vaporization (or weathering) patterns and the separation observed during distillation to predict the composition of residual compounds in fire debris. This is done with the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. Analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, Karl Fischer coulombic titrimetry, refractometry, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. We have applied this method on product streams such as finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this paper, we present results on a variety of ignitable liquids that are not commodity fuels, chosen from the Ignitable Liquids Reference Collection (ILRC). These measurements are assembled into a preliminary database. From this selection, we discuss the significance and forensic application of the temperature data grid and the composition explicit data channel of the ADC.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus