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Weathering Patterns of Ignitable Liquids with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method.

Bruno TJ, Allen S - J Res Natl Inst Stand Technol (2013)

Bottom Line: In this paper, we present results on a variety of ignitable liquids that are not commodity fuels, chosen from the Ignitable Liquids Reference Collection (ILRC).These measurements are assembled into a preliminary database.From this selection, we discuss the significance and forensic application of the temperature data grid and the composition explicit data channel of the ADC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305.

ABSTRACT
One can take advantage of the striking similarity of ignitable liquid vaporization (or weathering) patterns and the separation observed during distillation to predict the composition of residual compounds in fire debris. This is done with the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. Analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, Karl Fischer coulombic titrimetry, refractometry, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. We have applied this method on product streams such as finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this paper, we present results on a variety of ignitable liquids that are not commodity fuels, chosen from the Ignitable Liquids Reference Collection (ILRC). These measurements are assembled into a preliminary database. From this selection, we discuss the significance and forensic application of the temperature data grid and the composition explicit data channel of the ADC.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Chromatographic behavior of turpentine as a function of distillate volume fraction. Identified components are: a) tricyclene (b) (−)-α-pinene, (+)-α-pinene racemate, (c) camphene (d) 1,4-cineole (e) limonene (f) terpinolene (g) turpineol.
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f8-jres.118.003: Chromatographic behavior of turpentine as a function of distillate volume fraction. Identified components are: a) tricyclene (b) (−)-α-pinene, (+)-α-pinene racemate, (c) camphene (d) 1,4-cineole (e) limonene (f) terpinolene (g) turpineol.

Mentions: We mentioned above that the temperature range of the distillation curve is a significant predictor of composition change. Indeed, we have examined many ignitable liquids in which the temperature change is modest (10 °C or less), or in which the temperature is approximately constant over the entire distillation curve. An example of an ignitable liquid that shows a very modest distillation temperature range is industrial turpentine, which typically distills over a range of 10 °C (the details of the distillation measurements performed on this liquid can be found in the supplementary information). Despite the modest distillation temperature range, we nevertheless noted a gradual progression in the composition profile over this temperature range. The components observed are: a) tricyclene, (b) (−)-α-pinene, (+)-α-pinene racemate, (c) camphene, (d) 1,4-cineole (e), limonene, (f) terpinolene, and (g) turpineol. All of these components are present from the 0.025 to the 90 percent distillate volume fraction, but as we can observe in Fig. 8, the clear trend is to enrich in the heavier components (terpinolene and turpineol) while diminishing the lightest component, tricyclene. Despite this trend, the dominant component over the entire vaporization range is the pinene racemate. We also note that the compositional differences between industrial turpentines and the pyrolysis products seen in lumber combustion can be visualized by the composition channel. This is often a source of confusion in fire debris analysis. The ADC can also visualize and predict the differences in compositions known to occur in turpentines made from forest woods in the United States and in Canada [97,98].


Weathering Patterns of Ignitable Liquids with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method.

Bruno TJ, Allen S - J Res Natl Inst Stand Technol (2013)

Chromatographic behavior of turpentine as a function of distillate volume fraction. Identified components are: a) tricyclene (b) (−)-α-pinene, (+)-α-pinene racemate, (c) camphene (d) 1,4-cineole (e) limonene (f) terpinolene (g) turpineol.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487305&req=5

f8-jres.118.003: Chromatographic behavior of turpentine as a function of distillate volume fraction. Identified components are: a) tricyclene (b) (−)-α-pinene, (+)-α-pinene racemate, (c) camphene (d) 1,4-cineole (e) limonene (f) terpinolene (g) turpineol.
Mentions: We mentioned above that the temperature range of the distillation curve is a significant predictor of composition change. Indeed, we have examined many ignitable liquids in which the temperature change is modest (10 °C or less), or in which the temperature is approximately constant over the entire distillation curve. An example of an ignitable liquid that shows a very modest distillation temperature range is industrial turpentine, which typically distills over a range of 10 °C (the details of the distillation measurements performed on this liquid can be found in the supplementary information). Despite the modest distillation temperature range, we nevertheless noted a gradual progression in the composition profile over this temperature range. The components observed are: a) tricyclene, (b) (−)-α-pinene, (+)-α-pinene racemate, (c) camphene, (d) 1,4-cineole (e), limonene, (f) terpinolene, and (g) turpineol. All of these components are present from the 0.025 to the 90 percent distillate volume fraction, but as we can observe in Fig. 8, the clear trend is to enrich in the heavier components (terpinolene and turpineol) while diminishing the lightest component, tricyclene. Despite this trend, the dominant component over the entire vaporization range is the pinene racemate. We also note that the compositional differences between industrial turpentines and the pyrolysis products seen in lumber combustion can be visualized by the composition channel. This is often a source of confusion in fire debris analysis. The ADC can also visualize and predict the differences in compositions known to occur in turpentines made from forest woods in the United States and in Canada [97,98].

Bottom Line: In this paper, we present results on a variety of ignitable liquids that are not commodity fuels, chosen from the Ignitable Liquids Reference Collection (ILRC).These measurements are assembled into a preliminary database.From this selection, we discuss the significance and forensic application of the temperature data grid and the composition explicit data channel of the ADC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305.

ABSTRACT
One can take advantage of the striking similarity of ignitable liquid vaporization (or weathering) patterns and the separation observed during distillation to predict the composition of residual compounds in fire debris. This is done with the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. Analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, Karl Fischer coulombic titrimetry, refractometry, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. We have applied this method on product streams such as finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this paper, we present results on a variety of ignitable liquids that are not commodity fuels, chosen from the Ignitable Liquids Reference Collection (ILRC). These measurements are assembled into a preliminary database. From this selection, we discuss the significance and forensic application of the temperature data grid and the composition explicit data channel of the ADC.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus