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Weathering Patterns of Ignitable Liquids with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method.

Bruno TJ, Allen S - J Res Natl Inst Stand Technol (2013)

Bottom Line: We have applied this method on product streams such as finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils).These measurements are assembled into a preliminary database.From this selection, we discuss the significance and forensic application of the temperature data grid and the composition explicit data channel of the ADC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305.

ABSTRACT
One can take advantage of the striking similarity of ignitable liquid vaporization (or weathering) patterns and the separation observed during distillation to predict the composition of residual compounds in fire debris. This is done with the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. Analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, Karl Fischer coulombic titrimetry, refractometry, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. We have applied this method on product streams such as finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this paper, we present results on a variety of ignitable liquids that are not commodity fuels, chosen from the Ignitable Liquids Reference Collection (ILRC). These measurements are assembled into a preliminary database. From this selection, we discuss the significance and forensic application of the temperature data grid and the composition explicit data channel of the ADC.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

a. A summary of the moiety family analysis for the aliphatic hydrocarbons of STP Diesel Fuel Injector Treatment.b. A summary of the moiety family analysis for the cyclic hydrocarbons of STP Diesel Fuel Injector Treatment.
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f4-jres.118.003: a. A summary of the moiety family analysis for the aliphatic hydrocarbons of STP Diesel Fuel Injector Treatment.b. A summary of the moiety family analysis for the cyclic hydrocarbons of STP Diesel Fuel Injector Treatment.

Mentions: Before we discuss the detailed chromatographic analysis as a function of distillate volume fraction, we can provide a general overview of the composition by a moiety family analysis method that is based on the ASTM Method D-2789 [96]. In this method, one uses the GC-MS to classify hydrocarbon samples into six different types. The six different moieties are paraffins, monocycloparaffins, dicycloparaffins, alkylbenzenes (or aromatics), indanes and tetralins, and naphthalenes. While strictly applicable to low olefinnic gasolines, it is routinely used for the study of all fuels. The solvent, n-hexane, does not interfere with the main chromatographic peaks, and is not used in the subsequent calculation of moiety families. The results of these analyses (as % volume fractions) are presented in Fig. 4a and 4b. We note from Fig. 4a that the relative concentration of aliphatic constituents are approximately constant through the vaporization, but from Fig. 4b we note a very different behavior for alkylbenzenes, indanes, tetralins and naphthalenes. The alkylbenzene content, in particular, decreased markedly as vaporization proceeds, while there is a slight increase in the content of indanes, tetralins and naphthalenes. The consequence for the prediction of fire debris weathering patterns is clear; one can expect approximately similar aliphatic content in the weathered fluid as in the virgin fluid, albeit shifted to higher relative molecular mass. From Fig. 4b, on the other hand, we are led to expect a weathering pattern with a much lower content of alkylbenzenes, accompanied by a slight increase in indanes, tetralins and naphthalenes.


Weathering Patterns of Ignitable Liquids with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method.

Bruno TJ, Allen S - J Res Natl Inst Stand Technol (2013)

a. A summary of the moiety family analysis for the aliphatic hydrocarbons of STP Diesel Fuel Injector Treatment.b. A summary of the moiety family analysis for the cyclic hydrocarbons of STP Diesel Fuel Injector Treatment.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4487305&req=5

f4-jres.118.003: a. A summary of the moiety family analysis for the aliphatic hydrocarbons of STP Diesel Fuel Injector Treatment.b. A summary of the moiety family analysis for the cyclic hydrocarbons of STP Diesel Fuel Injector Treatment.
Mentions: Before we discuss the detailed chromatographic analysis as a function of distillate volume fraction, we can provide a general overview of the composition by a moiety family analysis method that is based on the ASTM Method D-2789 [96]. In this method, one uses the GC-MS to classify hydrocarbon samples into six different types. The six different moieties are paraffins, monocycloparaffins, dicycloparaffins, alkylbenzenes (or aromatics), indanes and tetralins, and naphthalenes. While strictly applicable to low olefinnic gasolines, it is routinely used for the study of all fuels. The solvent, n-hexane, does not interfere with the main chromatographic peaks, and is not used in the subsequent calculation of moiety families. The results of these analyses (as % volume fractions) are presented in Fig. 4a and 4b. We note from Fig. 4a that the relative concentration of aliphatic constituents are approximately constant through the vaporization, but from Fig. 4b we note a very different behavior for alkylbenzenes, indanes, tetralins and naphthalenes. The alkylbenzene content, in particular, decreased markedly as vaporization proceeds, while there is a slight increase in the content of indanes, tetralins and naphthalenes. The consequence for the prediction of fire debris weathering patterns is clear; one can expect approximately similar aliphatic content in the weathered fluid as in the virgin fluid, albeit shifted to higher relative molecular mass. From Fig. 4b, on the other hand, we are led to expect a weathering pattern with a much lower content of alkylbenzenes, accompanied by a slight increase in indanes, tetralins and naphthalenes.

Bottom Line: We have applied this method on product streams such as finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils).These measurements are assembled into a preliminary database.From this selection, we discuss the significance and forensic application of the temperature data grid and the composition explicit data channel of the ADC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305.

ABSTRACT
One can take advantage of the striking similarity of ignitable liquid vaporization (or weathering) patterns and the separation observed during distillation to predict the composition of residual compounds in fire debris. This is done with the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. Analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, Karl Fischer coulombic titrimetry, refractometry, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. We have applied this method on product streams such as finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this paper, we present results on a variety of ignitable liquids that are not commodity fuels, chosen from the Ignitable Liquids Reference Collection (ILRC). These measurements are assembled into a preliminary database. From this selection, we discuss the significance and forensic application of the temperature data grid and the composition explicit data channel of the ADC.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus