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An evaluation of antifungal agents for the treatment of fungal contamination in indoor air environments.

Rogawansamy S, Gaskin S, Taylor M, Pisaniello D - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants.Vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid) was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi.Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to inhibit the growth of fungal genera found in the indoor air environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Occupational and Environmental Hygiene Laboratory, Discipline of Public Health, School of Population Health, University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia. Sentha.Rogawansamy@unisa.edu.au.

ABSTRACT
Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®), 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid), and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil) tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum), which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid) was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to inhibit the growth of fungal genera found in the indoor air environment. The results indicate that tea tree oil was the most effective antifungal agent tested, and may have industrial application for the remediation of fungal contamination in residential and occupational buildings.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Diameter of growth inhibition zones of Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum after treatment using various antifungal agents. Mean ± SD (N = 40).
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ijerph-12-06319-f001: Diameter of growth inhibition zones of Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum after treatment using various antifungal agents. Mean ± SD (N = 40).

Mentions: Tea tree oil applied as a direct contact solution was found to have the highest inhibitory effect on the growth of both A. fumigatus and P. chrysogenum after a seven-day incubation period compared to the other antifungal agents tested (Figure 1). A. fumigatus growth was completely inhibited by TTO with a mean inhibition zone diameter (83 mm) significantly greater than other test compounds (p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.9761) and comparable to the results of the positive control phenol. TTO was less toxic to the P. chrysogenum (mean inhibition zone diameter of 43.5 mm ± 4.93), but more effective at inhibiting growth than the other compounds tested (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.9620). TTO when applied in vapour form, was found to be less effective than direct application in inhibiting the growth of condidate fungi (A. fumigatus mean inhibition zone diameter of 81 mm ± 4; P. chrysogenum mean inhibition zone diameter of 20.6 mm ± 12.85 for the vapour assay).


An evaluation of antifungal agents for the treatment of fungal contamination in indoor air environments.

Rogawansamy S, Gaskin S, Taylor M, Pisaniello D - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Diameter of growth inhibition zones of Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum after treatment using various antifungal agents. Mean ± SD (N = 40).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4483703&req=5

ijerph-12-06319-f001: Diameter of growth inhibition zones of Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum after treatment using various antifungal agents. Mean ± SD (N = 40).
Mentions: Tea tree oil applied as a direct contact solution was found to have the highest inhibitory effect on the growth of both A. fumigatus and P. chrysogenum after a seven-day incubation period compared to the other antifungal agents tested (Figure 1). A. fumigatus growth was completely inhibited by TTO with a mean inhibition zone diameter (83 mm) significantly greater than other test compounds (p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.9761) and comparable to the results of the positive control phenol. TTO was less toxic to the P. chrysogenum (mean inhibition zone diameter of 43.5 mm ± 4.93), but more effective at inhibiting growth than the other compounds tested (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.9620). TTO when applied in vapour form, was found to be less effective than direct application in inhibiting the growth of condidate fungi (A. fumigatus mean inhibition zone diameter of 81 mm ± 4; P. chrysogenum mean inhibition zone diameter of 20.6 mm ± 12.85 for the vapour assay).

Bottom Line: Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants.Vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid) was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi.Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to inhibit the growth of fungal genera found in the indoor air environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Occupational and Environmental Hygiene Laboratory, Discipline of Public Health, School of Population Health, University of Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia. Sentha.Rogawansamy@unisa.edu.au.

ABSTRACT
Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®), 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid), and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil) tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum), which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid) was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to inhibit the growth of fungal genera found in the indoor air environment. The results indicate that tea tree oil was the most effective antifungal agent tested, and may have industrial application for the remediation of fungal contamination in residential and occupational buildings.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus