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Toxic releases and risk disparity: a spatiotemporal model of industrial ecology and social empowerment.

Aoyagi H, Ogunseitan OA - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: We discovered, through spatial lag models, that changes in gross and toxic emissions are related to community ethnic composition, poverty level, home ownership, and base 1989 emissions (R-square=0.034-0.083).We generated a structural equation model to explain the determinants of social empowerment to act on the basis of environmental information.Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis (HCFA) supports the theoretical model that individual empowerment is predicted by risk perception, worry, and awareness (Chi-square=63.315, p=0.022, df=42).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. haoy461@ecy.wa.gov.

ABSTRACT
Information-based regulations (IBRs) are founded on the theoretical premise that public participation in accomplishing policy goals is empowered by open access to information. Since its inception in 1988, the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) has provided the framework and regulatory impetus for the compilation and distribution of data on toxic releases associated with industrial development, following the tenets of IBR. As TRI emissions are reputed to disproportionately affect low-income communities, we investigated how demographic characteristics are related to change in TRI emissions and toxicity risks between 1989 and 2002, and we sought to identify factors that predict these changes. We used local indicators of spatial association (LISA) maps and spatial regression techniques to study risk disparity in the Los Angeles urban area. We also surveyed 203 individuals in eight communities in the same region to measure the levels of awareness of TRI, attitudes towards air pollution, and general environmental risk. We discovered, through spatial lag models, that changes in gross and toxic emissions are related to community ethnic composition, poverty level, home ownership, and base 1989 emissions (R-square=0.034-0.083). We generated a structural equation model to explain the determinants of social empowerment to act on the basis of environmental information. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis (HCFA) supports the theoretical model that individual empowerment is predicted by risk perception, worry, and awareness (Chi-square=63.315, p=0.022, df=42). This study provides strong evidence that spatiotemporal changes in regional-scale environmental risks are influenced by individual-scale empowerment mediated by IBRs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Model for Stakeholder Empowerment—Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis was used to generate factor loadings for each of the three first order factors (perceived risk, worry/inequality, and awareness), as well as the indicators (inside the boxes). The indicators represent individual survey questions that grouped well under our theoretical framework (See Table 3).
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ijerph-12-06300-f002: Model for Stakeholder Empowerment—Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis was used to generate factor loadings for each of the three first order factors (perceived risk, worry/inequality, and awareness), as well as the indicators (inside the boxes). The indicators represent individual survey questions that grouped well under our theoretical framework (See Table 3).

Mentions: The theoretical underpinnings of social empowerment informed the model presented in Figure 2, where stakeholder empowerment is represented as a second order factor, while worry/concern, perceived risk, and awareness are first order factors. Each factor is comprised of indicators (boxes), which are individual survey questions. The first order factors are derived from theoretically important variable groupings with high reliability.


Toxic releases and risk disparity: a spatiotemporal model of industrial ecology and social empowerment.

Aoyagi H, Ogunseitan OA - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Model for Stakeholder Empowerment—Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis was used to generate factor loadings for each of the three first order factors (perceived risk, worry/inequality, and awareness), as well as the indicators (inside the boxes). The indicators represent individual survey questions that grouped well under our theoretical framework (See Table 3).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4483702&req=5

ijerph-12-06300-f002: Model for Stakeholder Empowerment—Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis was used to generate factor loadings for each of the three first order factors (perceived risk, worry/inequality, and awareness), as well as the indicators (inside the boxes). The indicators represent individual survey questions that grouped well under our theoretical framework (See Table 3).
Mentions: The theoretical underpinnings of social empowerment informed the model presented in Figure 2, where stakeholder empowerment is represented as a second order factor, while worry/concern, perceived risk, and awareness are first order factors. Each factor is comprised of indicators (boxes), which are individual survey questions. The first order factors are derived from theoretically important variable groupings with high reliability.

Bottom Line: We discovered, through spatial lag models, that changes in gross and toxic emissions are related to community ethnic composition, poverty level, home ownership, and base 1989 emissions (R-square=0.034-0.083).We generated a structural equation model to explain the determinants of social empowerment to act on the basis of environmental information.Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis (HCFA) supports the theoretical model that individual empowerment is predicted by risk perception, worry, and awareness (Chi-square=63.315, p=0.022, df=42).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Social Ecology, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. haoy461@ecy.wa.gov.

ABSTRACT
Information-based regulations (IBRs) are founded on the theoretical premise that public participation in accomplishing policy goals is empowered by open access to information. Since its inception in 1988, the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) has provided the framework and regulatory impetus for the compilation and distribution of data on toxic releases associated with industrial development, following the tenets of IBR. As TRI emissions are reputed to disproportionately affect low-income communities, we investigated how demographic characteristics are related to change in TRI emissions and toxicity risks between 1989 and 2002, and we sought to identify factors that predict these changes. We used local indicators of spatial association (LISA) maps and spatial regression techniques to study risk disparity in the Los Angeles urban area. We also surveyed 203 individuals in eight communities in the same region to measure the levels of awareness of TRI, attitudes towards air pollution, and general environmental risk. We discovered, through spatial lag models, that changes in gross and toxic emissions are related to community ethnic composition, poverty level, home ownership, and base 1989 emissions (R-square=0.034-0.083). We generated a structural equation model to explain the determinants of social empowerment to act on the basis of environmental information. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis (HCFA) supports the theoretical model that individual empowerment is predicted by risk perception, worry, and awareness (Chi-square=63.315, p=0.022, df=42). This study provides strong evidence that spatiotemporal changes in regional-scale environmental risks are influenced by individual-scale empowerment mediated by IBRs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus