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Class 1 Integrons and the Antiseptic Resistance Gene (qacEΔ1) in Municipal and Swine Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment Plants and Wastewater-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Wan MT, Chou CC - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Class 1 integrons are mobile gene elements (MGEs) containing qacEΔ1 that are resistant to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) disinfectants.This study compared the abundances of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in municipal (M) and swine slaughterhouse (S) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and investigated the presence of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from wastewater samples.The intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes were detected in all the wastewater samples, and they were more abundant in S-WWTP samples than in M-WWTP samples.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan. d99629002@ntu.edu.tw.

ABSTRACT
Class 1 integrons are mobile gene elements (MGEs) containing qacEΔ1 that are resistant to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) disinfectants. This study compared the abundances of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in municipal (M) and swine slaughterhouse (S) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and investigated the presence of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from wastewater samples. The abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in 96 wastewater samples were quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR), and 113 MRSA isolates recovered from the wastewater samples were detected class 1 integrons and linked antiseptic resistance genes (qacEΔ1), and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for QAC antiseptics. The intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes were detected in all the wastewater samples, and they were more abundant in S-WWTP samples than in M-WWTP samples. A higher percentage of MRSA isolates carried qacEΔ1 in MRSA from swine wastewater samples (62.8%) than in municipal MRSA (3.7%). All the MRSA isolates showed high MICs for antiseptic agents. This study provides important evidence regarding the abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in municipal and swine slaughterhouse wastewater, and antiseptic-resistant MRSA strains were detected in swine slaughterhouse wastewater.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Abundance of intI1 (A) and qacEΔ1 (B) determined with the SYBR Green real-time qPCR. M-WWTP: municipal wastewater treatment plant. S-WWTP: swine slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant. The following sampling sites are shown: M–A: influent, M–B: inlet of the primary clarification tank, M-C: outlet of the primary clarification tank, M–D: deep shaft system, M–E: secondary clarification tank, M–F: effluent; S–A: influent, S–B to S–D: activated sludge reactor I-III, S–E: final clarification tank, S–F: effluent. Within the box and whiskers plot, the bottom and top of the box plot represent 25th, median (black bar) and 75th percentiles. The whiskers indicate the 5th and 95th percentiles. Black dots represent outlier (s).
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ijerph-12-06249-f002: Abundance of intI1 (A) and qacEΔ1 (B) determined with the SYBR Green real-time qPCR. M-WWTP: municipal wastewater treatment plant. S-WWTP: swine slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant. The following sampling sites are shown: M–A: influent, M–B: inlet of the primary clarification tank, M-C: outlet of the primary clarification tank, M–D: deep shaft system, M–E: secondary clarification tank, M–F: effluent; S–A: influent, S–B to S–D: activated sludge reactor I-III, S–E: final clarification tank, S–F: effluent. Within the box and whiskers plot, the bottom and top of the box plot represent 25th, median (black bar) and 75th percentiles. The whiskers indicate the 5th and 95th percentiles. Black dots represent outlier (s).

Mentions: All 96 of the wastewater samples taken tested positive for intI1 and qacEΔ1. The levels of intI1 (1.8–5.4 log10; 7 × 101 to 2.5 × 105 gene copies μg−1 of total DNA) and qacEΔ1 (1.5–5.4 log10; 3.2 × 101 to 2.5 × 105 gene copies μg−1 of total DNA) in S-WWTP wastewater were higher than those (intI1: 0.3 to 4.7 log10; 2.2 to 5.5 × 104 gene copies μg−1 of total DNA, and qacEΔ1: 0.26 to 4.1 log10; 1.8 to 1.4 × 104 gene copies μg−1 of total DNA) in the M-WWTP samples (Figure 2).


Class 1 Integrons and the Antiseptic Resistance Gene (qacEΔ1) in Municipal and Swine Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment Plants and Wastewater-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Wan MT, Chou CC - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Abundance of intI1 (A) and qacEΔ1 (B) determined with the SYBR Green real-time qPCR. M-WWTP: municipal wastewater treatment plant. S-WWTP: swine slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant. The following sampling sites are shown: M–A: influent, M–B: inlet of the primary clarification tank, M-C: outlet of the primary clarification tank, M–D: deep shaft system, M–E: secondary clarification tank, M–F: effluent; S–A: influent, S–B to S–D: activated sludge reactor I-III, S–E: final clarification tank, S–F: effluent. Within the box and whiskers plot, the bottom and top of the box plot represent 25th, median (black bar) and 75th percentiles. The whiskers indicate the 5th and 95th percentiles. Black dots represent outlier (s).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4483699&req=5

ijerph-12-06249-f002: Abundance of intI1 (A) and qacEΔ1 (B) determined with the SYBR Green real-time qPCR. M-WWTP: municipal wastewater treatment plant. S-WWTP: swine slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant. The following sampling sites are shown: M–A: influent, M–B: inlet of the primary clarification tank, M-C: outlet of the primary clarification tank, M–D: deep shaft system, M–E: secondary clarification tank, M–F: effluent; S–A: influent, S–B to S–D: activated sludge reactor I-III, S–E: final clarification tank, S–F: effluent. Within the box and whiskers plot, the bottom and top of the box plot represent 25th, median (black bar) and 75th percentiles. The whiskers indicate the 5th and 95th percentiles. Black dots represent outlier (s).
Mentions: All 96 of the wastewater samples taken tested positive for intI1 and qacEΔ1. The levels of intI1 (1.8–5.4 log10; 7 × 101 to 2.5 × 105 gene copies μg−1 of total DNA) and qacEΔ1 (1.5–5.4 log10; 3.2 × 101 to 2.5 × 105 gene copies μg−1 of total DNA) in S-WWTP wastewater were higher than those (intI1: 0.3 to 4.7 log10; 2.2 to 5.5 × 104 gene copies μg−1 of total DNA, and qacEΔ1: 0.26 to 4.1 log10; 1.8 to 1.4 × 104 gene copies μg−1 of total DNA) in the M-WWTP samples (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Class 1 integrons are mobile gene elements (MGEs) containing qacEΔ1 that are resistant to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) disinfectants.This study compared the abundances of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in municipal (M) and swine slaughterhouse (S) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and investigated the presence of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from wastewater samples.The intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes were detected in all the wastewater samples, and they were more abundant in S-WWTP samples than in M-WWTP samples.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan. d99629002@ntu.edu.tw.

ABSTRACT
Class 1 integrons are mobile gene elements (MGEs) containing qacEΔ1 that are resistant to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) disinfectants. This study compared the abundances of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in municipal (M) and swine slaughterhouse (S) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and investigated the presence of class 1 integrons and antiseptic resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from wastewater samples. The abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in 96 wastewater samples were quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR), and 113 MRSA isolates recovered from the wastewater samples were detected class 1 integrons and linked antiseptic resistance genes (qacEΔ1), and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for QAC antiseptics. The intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes were detected in all the wastewater samples, and they were more abundant in S-WWTP samples than in M-WWTP samples. A higher percentage of MRSA isolates carried qacEΔ1 in MRSA from swine wastewater samples (62.8%) than in municipal MRSA (3.7%). All the MRSA isolates showed high MICs for antiseptic agents. This study provides important evidence regarding the abundances of intI1 and qacEΔ1 genes in municipal and swine slaughterhouse wastewater, and antiseptic-resistant MRSA strains were detected in swine slaughterhouse wastewater.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus