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Isolation, Virulence, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) Strains from Oklahoma Retail Poultry Meats.

Abdalrahman LS, Stanley A, Wells H, Fakhr MK - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Prevalence of S. aureus did not vary much between conventional (43.4%) and organic chicken samples (41%).MLST and spa typing also supported this conclusion.Multidrug resistance was higher in the turkey isolates compared to the chicken ones and the percentage of resistance to most of the antimicrobials tested was also higher among the turkey isolates.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Science, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK 74104, USA. Lubna-abdalrahman@utulsa.edu.

ABSTRACT
Staphylococcus aureus is one the top five pathogens causing domestically acquired foodborne illness in the U.S. Only a few studies are available related to the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in the U.S. retail poultry industry. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA) in retail chicken and turkey meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their antimicrobial resistance and possession of toxin genes. A total of 167 (114 chicken and 53 turkey) retail poultry samples were used in this study. The chicken samples included 61 organic samples while the rest of the poultry samples were conventional. The overall prevalence of S. aureus was 57/106 (53.8%) in the conventional poultry samples and 25/61 (41%) in the organic ones. Prevalence in the turkey samples (64.2%) was higher than in the chicken ones (42.1%). Prevalence of S. aureus did not vary much between conventional (43.4%) and organic chicken samples (41%). Two chicken samples 2/114 (1.8%) were positive for MRSA. PFGE identified the two MRSA isolates as belonging to PFGE type USA300 (from conventional chicken) and USA 500 (from organic chicken) which are community acquired CA-MRSA suggesting a human based source of contamination. MLST and spa typing also supported this conclusion. A total of 168 Staphylococcus aureus isolates (101 chicken isolates and 67 turkey isolates) were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was higher in the turkey isolates compared to the chicken ones and the percentage of resistance to most of the antimicrobials tested was also higher among the turkey isolates. The hemolysin hla and hld genes, enterotoxins seg and sei, and leucocidins lukE-lukD were more prevalent in the chicken isolates. The PVL gene lukS-lukF was detected only in chicken isolates including the MRSA ones. In conclusion, S. aureus is highly prevalent in poultry retail meats sold in Oklahoma with a very low presence of human-originated MRSA. Multidrug resistance is not only prevalent in the MRSA isolates, but also in many MSSA poultry strains, particularly turkey.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, spa types, and MLST of the twelve recovered MRSA strains.
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ijerph-12-06148-f002: Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, spa types, and MLST of the twelve recovered MRSA strains.

Mentions: A subset of the MSSA isolates recovered in this study was subjected to spa typing (Figure 1). As shown in Figure 1, most of the turkey isolates were clustered together. Different brands also appeared to cluster together according to their spa repeats. Twelve MRSA isolates representing the two positive MRSA chicken samples (6 MRSA isolates were recovered out of each positive chicken samples) were subjected to PFGE, spa typing and MLST (Figure 2). The first six MRSA isolates that came from a conventional chicken sample belonged to PFGE type USA300 (data not shown), which is a community acquired CA-MRSA. The second six MRSA isolates recovered from an organic chicken sample belonged to PFGE type USA500 (Figure 2), which is also a community acquired MRSA. MLST and spa typing also showed t046, t008, and ST08 which are consistent with the PFGE results indicating a human origin rather than livestock association. These results affirm that the source of MRSA contamination in the two chicken samples in our study is human based and may be due to improper handling of the meat at the slaughter house, processing facilities, or at the retail stores. This is not surprising since the majority of MRSA isolates detected in the US retail meats were human associated strains [4,10] except for few that were LA-MRSA and were mostly reported in pork meat [11,14,15], while most studies conducted in Europe identified MRSA from retail meats as Live Stock acquired MRSA strains (LA-MRSA) including pork, beef and turkey [8]. For example, all MRSA isolated from Michigan retail meats were USA300 [10]. Pu et al. also reported similar results where their MRSA strains belonged to USA100 and USA300, which are human HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA, respectively [4].


Isolation, Virulence, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) Strains from Oklahoma Retail Poultry Meats.

Abdalrahman LS, Stanley A, Wells H, Fakhr MK - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2015)

Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, spa types, and MLST of the twelve recovered MRSA strains.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4483693&req=5

ijerph-12-06148-f002: Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, spa types, and MLST of the twelve recovered MRSA strains.
Mentions: A subset of the MSSA isolates recovered in this study was subjected to spa typing (Figure 1). As shown in Figure 1, most of the turkey isolates were clustered together. Different brands also appeared to cluster together according to their spa repeats. Twelve MRSA isolates representing the two positive MRSA chicken samples (6 MRSA isolates were recovered out of each positive chicken samples) were subjected to PFGE, spa typing and MLST (Figure 2). The first six MRSA isolates that came from a conventional chicken sample belonged to PFGE type USA300 (data not shown), which is a community acquired CA-MRSA. The second six MRSA isolates recovered from an organic chicken sample belonged to PFGE type USA500 (Figure 2), which is also a community acquired MRSA. MLST and spa typing also showed t046, t008, and ST08 which are consistent with the PFGE results indicating a human origin rather than livestock association. These results affirm that the source of MRSA contamination in the two chicken samples in our study is human based and may be due to improper handling of the meat at the slaughter house, processing facilities, or at the retail stores. This is not surprising since the majority of MRSA isolates detected in the US retail meats were human associated strains [4,10] except for few that were LA-MRSA and were mostly reported in pork meat [11,14,15], while most studies conducted in Europe identified MRSA from retail meats as Live Stock acquired MRSA strains (LA-MRSA) including pork, beef and turkey [8]. For example, all MRSA isolated from Michigan retail meats were USA300 [10]. Pu et al. also reported similar results where their MRSA strains belonged to USA100 and USA300, which are human HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA, respectively [4].

Bottom Line: Prevalence of S. aureus did not vary much between conventional (43.4%) and organic chicken samples (41%).MLST and spa typing also supported this conclusion.Multidrug resistance was higher in the turkey isolates compared to the chicken ones and the percentage of resistance to most of the antimicrobials tested was also higher among the turkey isolates.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Science, The University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK 74104, USA. Lubna-abdalrahman@utulsa.edu.

ABSTRACT
Staphylococcus aureus is one the top five pathogens causing domestically acquired foodborne illness in the U.S. Only a few studies are available related to the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in the U.S. retail poultry industry. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA) in retail chicken and turkey meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their antimicrobial resistance and possession of toxin genes. A total of 167 (114 chicken and 53 turkey) retail poultry samples were used in this study. The chicken samples included 61 organic samples while the rest of the poultry samples were conventional. The overall prevalence of S. aureus was 57/106 (53.8%) in the conventional poultry samples and 25/61 (41%) in the organic ones. Prevalence in the turkey samples (64.2%) was higher than in the chicken ones (42.1%). Prevalence of S. aureus did not vary much between conventional (43.4%) and organic chicken samples (41%). Two chicken samples 2/114 (1.8%) were positive for MRSA. PFGE identified the two MRSA isolates as belonging to PFGE type USA300 (from conventional chicken) and USA 500 (from organic chicken) which are community acquired CA-MRSA suggesting a human based source of contamination. MLST and spa typing also supported this conclusion. A total of 168 Staphylococcus aureus isolates (101 chicken isolates and 67 turkey isolates) were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was higher in the turkey isolates compared to the chicken ones and the percentage of resistance to most of the antimicrobials tested was also higher among the turkey isolates. The hemolysin hla and hld genes, enterotoxins seg and sei, and leucocidins lukE-lukD were more prevalent in the chicken isolates. The PVL gene lukS-lukF was detected only in chicken isolates including the MRSA ones. In conclusion, S. aureus is highly prevalent in poultry retail meats sold in Oklahoma with a very low presence of human-originated MRSA. Multidrug resistance is not only prevalent in the MRSA isolates, but also in many MSSA poultry strains, particularly turkey.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus