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Valorization of Sargassum muticum Biomass According to the Biorefinery Concept.

Balboa EM, Moure A, Domínguez H - Mar Drugs (2015)

Bottom Line: Hydrothermal processing is proposed to fractionate the algal biomass and to solubilize the fucoidan and phlorotannin fractions.Membrane technology was proposed to concentrate these fractions and obtain salt- and arsenic-free saccharidic fractions.Based on these technologies, this study presents a multipurpose process to obtain six different products with potential applications for nutraceutical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), Polytechnical Building, As Lagoas s/n, Ourense 32004, Spain. elenamba@uvigo.es.

ABSTRACT
The biorefinery concept integrates processes and technologies for an efficient biomass conversion using all components of a feedstock. Sargassum muticum is an invasive brown algae which could be regarded as a renewable resource susceptible of individual valorization of the constituent fractions into high added-value compounds. Microwave drying technology can be proposed before conventional ethanol extraction of algal biomass, and supercritical fluid extraction with CO2 was useful to extract fucoxanthin and for the fractionation of crude ethanol extracts. Hydrothermal processing is proposed to fractionate the algal biomass and to solubilize the fucoidan and phlorotannin fractions. Membrane technology was proposed to concentrate these fractions and obtain salt- and arsenic-free saccharidic fractions. Based on these technologies, this study presents a multipurpose process to obtain six different products with potential applications for nutraceutical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

No MeSH data available.


Inorganic arsenic (Asi) % reduction of soaked Sm compared with ovSm.
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marinedrugs-13-03745-f003: Inorganic arsenic (Asi) % reduction of soaked Sm compared with ovSm.

Mentions: Salt elimination involves ash content and arsenic (As) reduction. Due to the toxicological importance of this heavy metal, further analysis of As content in the final products was addressed. Different strategies for As removal have been tried based on information from the literature with the aim of obtaining arsenic free products, including: (a) extraction with ethanol at different concentrations; (b) aqueous extraction at different time and temperature [20,21]; (c) ultrasound assisted ethanol extraction; (d) accelerated solvent extraction using ethanol [22]; (e) adsorption onto orange peel as sorbent [23]; (f) adsorption onto activated charcoal; and (g) ultrafiltration membrane fractionation. Strategies a, c, d, e, and f did not allow the As rate to decrease, but interesting results were observed for aqueous soaking at 35 °C for 20 min; a reduction of 45.99% ± 5.0% of As was observed in Sm (Figure 3). Significant reduction was also observed for membrane fractionation of Sm extracts. Comparative data of the arsenic removal with these techniques is shown in Table 5: Inorganic arsenic (Asi) content of an autohydrolysis liquor from Sm from June 2011 (3.46 log R0, 3.75 L volume Parr), the spray-dried liquors (Products 4 and 5) and the retentate and permeate streams from the 1 kDa cut off spiral membrane. Membrane processing allowed a selective removal of these species, since the concentrate showed a reduction of Asi of 90%, whereas permeate (18%), Product 4 (96%) and Product 5 (99%) compared to the autohydrolysis extract values. The remaining As in the concentrated product was probably biologically unavailable, since no toxicity was detected in an oral study. Muñoz et al. [24] reported that inorganic forms of As are the most toxic and total As measurement is not a good pointer to report a tolerable daily intake. Among Asi, the trivalent arsenicals are more toxic than the pentavalent arsenicals [25].


Valorization of Sargassum muticum Biomass According to the Biorefinery Concept.

Balboa EM, Moure A, Domínguez H - Mar Drugs (2015)

Inorganic arsenic (Asi) % reduction of soaked Sm compared with ovSm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4483654&req=5

marinedrugs-13-03745-f003: Inorganic arsenic (Asi) % reduction of soaked Sm compared with ovSm.
Mentions: Salt elimination involves ash content and arsenic (As) reduction. Due to the toxicological importance of this heavy metal, further analysis of As content in the final products was addressed. Different strategies for As removal have been tried based on information from the literature with the aim of obtaining arsenic free products, including: (a) extraction with ethanol at different concentrations; (b) aqueous extraction at different time and temperature [20,21]; (c) ultrasound assisted ethanol extraction; (d) accelerated solvent extraction using ethanol [22]; (e) adsorption onto orange peel as sorbent [23]; (f) adsorption onto activated charcoal; and (g) ultrafiltration membrane fractionation. Strategies a, c, d, e, and f did not allow the As rate to decrease, but interesting results were observed for aqueous soaking at 35 °C for 20 min; a reduction of 45.99% ± 5.0% of As was observed in Sm (Figure 3). Significant reduction was also observed for membrane fractionation of Sm extracts. Comparative data of the arsenic removal with these techniques is shown in Table 5: Inorganic arsenic (Asi) content of an autohydrolysis liquor from Sm from June 2011 (3.46 log R0, 3.75 L volume Parr), the spray-dried liquors (Products 4 and 5) and the retentate and permeate streams from the 1 kDa cut off spiral membrane. Membrane processing allowed a selective removal of these species, since the concentrate showed a reduction of Asi of 90%, whereas permeate (18%), Product 4 (96%) and Product 5 (99%) compared to the autohydrolysis extract values. The remaining As in the concentrated product was probably biologically unavailable, since no toxicity was detected in an oral study. Muñoz et al. [24] reported that inorganic forms of As are the most toxic and total As measurement is not a good pointer to report a tolerable daily intake. Among Asi, the trivalent arsenicals are more toxic than the pentavalent arsenicals [25].

Bottom Line: Hydrothermal processing is proposed to fractionate the algal biomass and to solubilize the fucoidan and phlorotannin fractions.Membrane technology was proposed to concentrate these fractions and obtain salt- and arsenic-free saccharidic fractions.Based on these technologies, this study presents a multipurpose process to obtain six different products with potential applications for nutraceutical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), Polytechnical Building, As Lagoas s/n, Ourense 32004, Spain. elenamba@uvigo.es.

ABSTRACT
The biorefinery concept integrates processes and technologies for an efficient biomass conversion using all components of a feedstock. Sargassum muticum is an invasive brown algae which could be regarded as a renewable resource susceptible of individual valorization of the constituent fractions into high added-value compounds. Microwave drying technology can be proposed before conventional ethanol extraction of algal biomass, and supercritical fluid extraction with CO2 was useful to extract fucoxanthin and for the fractionation of crude ethanol extracts. Hydrothermal processing is proposed to fractionate the algal biomass and to solubilize the fucoidan and phlorotannin fractions. Membrane technology was proposed to concentrate these fractions and obtain salt- and arsenic-free saccharidic fractions. Based on these technologies, this study presents a multipurpose process to obtain six different products with potential applications for nutraceutical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

No MeSH data available.