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Use of Natural Antimicrobial Peptides and Bacterial Biopolymers for Cultured Pearl Production.

Simon-Colin C, Gueguen Y, Bachere E, Kouzayha A, Saulnier D, Gayet N, Guezennec J - Mar Drugs (2015)

Bottom Line: In field studies, the combination treatment resulted in a significant reduction in graft failures vs. untreated controls.The combination of tachyplesin (73 mg/L) with two bacterial exopolysaccharides (0.5% w/w) acting as filming agents, reduces graft-associated bacterial contamination.These data suggest that non-antibiotic treatments of pearl oysters may provide an effective means of improving oyster survival following grafting procedures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ifremer, Centre de Brest, BP 70, 29280 Plouzané, France. Christelle.Simon.Colin@ifremer.fr.

ABSTRACT
Cultured pearls are the product of grafting and rearing of Pinctada margaritifera pearl oysters in their natural environment. Nucleus rejections and oyster mortality appear to result from bacterial infections or from an inappropriate grafting practice. To reduce the impact of bacterial infections, synthetic antibiotics have been applied during the grafting practice. However, the use of such antibiotics presents a number of problems associated with their incomplete biodegradability, limited efficacy in some cases, and an increased risk of selecting for antimicrobial resistant bacteria. We investigated the application of a marine antimicrobial peptide, tachyplesin, which is present in the Japanese horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus, in combination with two marine bacterial exopolymers as alternative treatment agents. In field studies, the combination treatment resulted in a significant reduction in graft failures vs. untreated controls. The combination of tachyplesin (73 mg/L) with two bacterial exopolysaccharides (0.5% w/w) acting as filming agents, reduces graft-associated bacterial contamination. The survival data were similar to that reported for antibiotic treatments. These data suggest that non-antibiotic treatments of pearl oysters may provide an effective means of improving oyster survival following grafting procedures.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Keshi pearls produced by the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera.
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marinedrugs-13-03732-f006: Keshi pearls produced by the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera.

Mentions: At the end of the experiments (To +15 months), and compared to commercial nuclei (E), nuclei treated with an EPS/AMP mixture showed a significant increase of pearls of high commercial value (assigned mainly to the proportion of round to semi-round high grade pearls). Furthermore, a decrease in the proportion of keshis was observed comparing EPS/AMP nuclei to non-coated nuclei (F). Keshi pearls correspond to non-nucleated pearls typically formed as by-products of pearl cultivation and referred to those pearls formed when a bead nucleus was rejected. Because they have no nucleus, keshi pearls are composed entirely of P. margaritifera nacre (Figure 6). Identical results were observed with nuclei coated with the mixture EPS-tachyplesin and commercialized ones. This is interesting because the results obtained with an environmentally friendly coating are as good as with commercial nucleus. Another advantage to using exopolysaccharide associated with AMP is their binding capability. Bacterial EPSs contain ionizable functional groups such as carboxyl, amine, sulfate and to a lesser extent hydroxyl groups that enable these biopolymers to bind metals [30,31]. Chelation of calcium and magnesium by these exopolysaccharides is in favor of the formation of an homogeneous nacre at the end of the biomineralization process [32].


Use of Natural Antimicrobial Peptides and Bacterial Biopolymers for Cultured Pearl Production.

Simon-Colin C, Gueguen Y, Bachere E, Kouzayha A, Saulnier D, Gayet N, Guezennec J - Mar Drugs (2015)

Keshi pearls produced by the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4483653&req=5

marinedrugs-13-03732-f006: Keshi pearls produced by the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera.
Mentions: At the end of the experiments (To +15 months), and compared to commercial nuclei (E), nuclei treated with an EPS/AMP mixture showed a significant increase of pearls of high commercial value (assigned mainly to the proportion of round to semi-round high grade pearls). Furthermore, a decrease in the proportion of keshis was observed comparing EPS/AMP nuclei to non-coated nuclei (F). Keshi pearls correspond to non-nucleated pearls typically formed as by-products of pearl cultivation and referred to those pearls formed when a bead nucleus was rejected. Because they have no nucleus, keshi pearls are composed entirely of P. margaritifera nacre (Figure 6). Identical results were observed with nuclei coated with the mixture EPS-tachyplesin and commercialized ones. This is interesting because the results obtained with an environmentally friendly coating are as good as with commercial nucleus. Another advantage to using exopolysaccharide associated with AMP is their binding capability. Bacterial EPSs contain ionizable functional groups such as carboxyl, amine, sulfate and to a lesser extent hydroxyl groups that enable these biopolymers to bind metals [30,31]. Chelation of calcium and magnesium by these exopolysaccharides is in favor of the formation of an homogeneous nacre at the end of the biomineralization process [32].

Bottom Line: In field studies, the combination treatment resulted in a significant reduction in graft failures vs. untreated controls.The combination of tachyplesin (73 mg/L) with two bacterial exopolysaccharides (0.5% w/w) acting as filming agents, reduces graft-associated bacterial contamination.These data suggest that non-antibiotic treatments of pearl oysters may provide an effective means of improving oyster survival following grafting procedures.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Ifremer, Centre de Brest, BP 70, 29280 Plouzané, France. Christelle.Simon.Colin@ifremer.fr.

ABSTRACT
Cultured pearls are the product of grafting and rearing of Pinctada margaritifera pearl oysters in their natural environment. Nucleus rejections and oyster mortality appear to result from bacterial infections or from an inappropriate grafting practice. To reduce the impact of bacterial infections, synthetic antibiotics have been applied during the grafting practice. However, the use of such antibiotics presents a number of problems associated with their incomplete biodegradability, limited efficacy in some cases, and an increased risk of selecting for antimicrobial resistant bacteria. We investigated the application of a marine antimicrobial peptide, tachyplesin, which is present in the Japanese horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus, in combination with two marine bacterial exopolymers as alternative treatment agents. In field studies, the combination treatment resulted in a significant reduction in graft failures vs. untreated controls. The combination of tachyplesin (73 mg/L) with two bacterial exopolysaccharides (0.5% w/w) acting as filming agents, reduces graft-associated bacterial contamination. The survival data were similar to that reported for antibiotic treatments. These data suggest that non-antibiotic treatments of pearl oysters may provide an effective means of improving oyster survival following grafting procedures.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus