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Low-Molecular-Weight Metabolites from Diatoms: Structures, Biological Roles and Biosynthesis.

Stonik V, Stonik I - Mar Drugs (2015)

Bottom Line: These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites.However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products.Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Chemistry of Marine Natural Products, G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, FEB RAS, Vladivostok 690022, Russia. stonik@piboc.dvo.ru.

ABSTRACT
Diatoms are abundant and important biological components of the marine environment that biosynthesize diverse natural products. These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites. Several groups of diatom natural products have attracted great interest due to their potential practical application as energy sources (biofuel), valuable food constituents, and prospective materials for nanotechnology. In addition, hydrocarbons, which are used in climate reconstruction, polyamines which participate in biomineralization, new apoptotic agents against tumor cells, attractants and deterrents that regulate the biochemical communications between marine species in seawaters have also been isolated from diatoms. However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products. Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Structures of domoic and isodomoic acids.
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marinedrugs-13-03672-f019: Structures of domoic and isodomoic acids.

Mentions: Domoic acid (DA) (Figure 19), a product of mixed biogenesis from amino acids and an isoprenoid precursor, is a toxin of diatoms, which is accumulated in mollusks and other marine animals and causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) or domoic acid poisoning (DAP). The first case of this type of poisoning, caused by eating cultivated mussel Mytilus edulis, was described in Canada in 1987. In that case four people died and over 100 people had various toxic syndromes, including an 84-year-old male, who had symptoms of temporal epilepsy, caused by this intoxication [114,115,116]. Domoic acid was originally isolated from the red alga Chondria armata [117], and its structure was later revised after chemical synthesis [118]. This alga is known as “domoi” in Japan. After the discovery of ASP it was found that the toxin is also produced by some diatoms such as Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and Nitzschia navis-virginica [119,120,121]. Japanese scientists showed that the diatom Pseudo-nitzshia multiseries partly loses the ability to produce DA when cultivated axenically, but recovers this ability when marine bacteria from the original culture are added to axenic cultures [122]. This means that production requires the joint participation of microalgae and bacteria. The origin of domoic acid in diatoms as well as the unexpected biochemical parallelism in the presence of the toxin in both the red algae Chondria armata and diatoms continue to be intriguing sealed books.


Low-Molecular-Weight Metabolites from Diatoms: Structures, Biological Roles and Biosynthesis.

Stonik V, Stonik I - Mar Drugs (2015)

Structures of domoic and isodomoic acids.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4483651&req=5

marinedrugs-13-03672-f019: Structures of domoic and isodomoic acids.
Mentions: Domoic acid (DA) (Figure 19), a product of mixed biogenesis from amino acids and an isoprenoid precursor, is a toxin of diatoms, which is accumulated in mollusks and other marine animals and causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) or domoic acid poisoning (DAP). The first case of this type of poisoning, caused by eating cultivated mussel Mytilus edulis, was described in Canada in 1987. In that case four people died and over 100 people had various toxic syndromes, including an 84-year-old male, who had symptoms of temporal epilepsy, caused by this intoxication [114,115,116]. Domoic acid was originally isolated from the red alga Chondria armata [117], and its structure was later revised after chemical synthesis [118]. This alga is known as “domoi” in Japan. After the discovery of ASP it was found that the toxin is also produced by some diatoms such as Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and Nitzschia navis-virginica [119,120,121]. Japanese scientists showed that the diatom Pseudo-nitzshia multiseries partly loses the ability to produce DA when cultivated axenically, but recovers this ability when marine bacteria from the original culture are added to axenic cultures [122]. This means that production requires the joint participation of microalgae and bacteria. The origin of domoic acid in diatoms as well as the unexpected biochemical parallelism in the presence of the toxin in both the red algae Chondria armata and diatoms continue to be intriguing sealed books.

Bottom Line: These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites.However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products.Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Chemistry of Marine Natural Products, G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, FEB RAS, Vladivostok 690022, Russia. stonik@piboc.dvo.ru.

ABSTRACT
Diatoms are abundant and important biological components of the marine environment that biosynthesize diverse natural products. These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites. Several groups of diatom natural products have attracted great interest due to their potential practical application as energy sources (biofuel), valuable food constituents, and prospective materials for nanotechnology. In addition, hydrocarbons, which are used in climate reconstruction, polyamines which participate in biomineralization, new apoptotic agents against tumor cells, attractants and deterrents that regulate the biochemical communications between marine species in seawaters have also been isolated from diatoms. However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products. Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus