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Low-Molecular-Weight Metabolites from Diatoms: Structures, Biological Roles and Biosynthesis.

Stonik V, Stonik I - Mar Drugs (2015)

Bottom Line: These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites.However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products.Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Chemistry of Marine Natural Products, G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, FEB RAS, Vladivostok 690022, Russia. stonik@piboc.dvo.ru.

ABSTRACT
Diatoms are abundant and important biological components of the marine environment that biosynthesize diverse natural products. These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites. Several groups of diatom natural products have attracted great interest due to their potential practical application as energy sources (biofuel), valuable food constituents, and prospective materials for nanotechnology. In addition, hydrocarbons, which are used in climate reconstruction, polyamines which participate in biomineralization, new apoptotic agents against tumor cells, attractants and deterrents that regulate the biochemical communications between marine species in seawaters have also been isolated from diatoms. However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products. Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Pigments of diatoms.
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marinedrugs-13-03672-f016: Pigments of diatoms.

Mentions: Chloroplasts of diatoms contain the following main pigments: fucoxanthin, β-carotene, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin [96], and several variants of chlorophylls, including chlorophylls a, c2 and c1 (Figure 16). For example, studies on 51 strains from 18 species of the genus Pseudo-nitszchia showed the presence of chlorophylls a and a significant diversity in the content and ratio of chlorophylls c1 and c2 between these species [97]. Phytol, a component of chlorophyll a, is often present in extracts from diatoms as a free constituent. These pigments play one of the main roles in phytosynthesis, providing light harvesting and photoprotection in diatoms. There is a similarity between pigments of diatoms (Figure 16) and those of brown algae, because chlorophylls a and c along with the xanthin pigment fucoxanthin are often the main pigments in both taxa, although some participants of the xanthophyll cycle were considered to be quite different in comparison with brown and other algae. In fact, there are predominant pigments, diatoxanthin and diadinoxanthin in diatoms, but these pigments do not usually present as prominent xanthins in the majority of other plants. In contrast to higher plants, diatoms do not biosynthesize luteolin.


Low-Molecular-Weight Metabolites from Diatoms: Structures, Biological Roles and Biosynthesis.

Stonik V, Stonik I - Mar Drugs (2015)

Pigments of diatoms.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4483651&req=5

marinedrugs-13-03672-f016: Pigments of diatoms.
Mentions: Chloroplasts of diatoms contain the following main pigments: fucoxanthin, β-carotene, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin [96], and several variants of chlorophylls, including chlorophylls a, c2 and c1 (Figure 16). For example, studies on 51 strains from 18 species of the genus Pseudo-nitszchia showed the presence of chlorophylls a and a significant diversity in the content and ratio of chlorophylls c1 and c2 between these species [97]. Phytol, a component of chlorophyll a, is often present in extracts from diatoms as a free constituent. These pigments play one of the main roles in phytosynthesis, providing light harvesting and photoprotection in diatoms. There is a similarity between pigments of diatoms (Figure 16) and those of brown algae, because chlorophylls a and c along with the xanthin pigment fucoxanthin are often the main pigments in both taxa, although some participants of the xanthophyll cycle were considered to be quite different in comparison with brown and other algae. In fact, there are predominant pigments, diatoxanthin and diadinoxanthin in diatoms, but these pigments do not usually present as prominent xanthins in the majority of other plants. In contrast to higher plants, diatoms do not biosynthesize luteolin.

Bottom Line: These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites.However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products.Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Chemistry of Marine Natural Products, G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, FEB RAS, Vladivostok 690022, Russia. stonik@piboc.dvo.ru.

ABSTRACT
Diatoms are abundant and important biological components of the marine environment that biosynthesize diverse natural products. These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites. Several groups of diatom natural products have attracted great interest due to their potential practical application as energy sources (biofuel), valuable food constituents, and prospective materials for nanotechnology. In addition, hydrocarbons, which are used in climate reconstruction, polyamines which participate in biomineralization, new apoptotic agents against tumor cells, attractants and deterrents that regulate the biochemical communications between marine species in seawaters have also been isolated from diatoms. However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products. Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus