Limits...
Low-Molecular-Weight Metabolites from Diatoms: Structures, Biological Roles and Biosynthesis.

Stonik V, Stonik I - Mar Drugs (2015)

Bottom Line: These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites.However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products.Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Chemistry of Marine Natural Products, G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, FEB RAS, Vladivostok 690022, Russia. stonik@piboc.dvo.ru.

ABSTRACT
Diatoms are abundant and important biological components of the marine environment that biosynthesize diverse natural products. These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites. Several groups of diatom natural products have attracted great interest due to their potential practical application as energy sources (biofuel), valuable food constituents, and prospective materials for nanotechnology. In addition, hydrocarbons, which are used in climate reconstruction, polyamines which participate in biomineralization, new apoptotic agents against tumor cells, attractants and deterrents that regulate the biochemical communications between marine species in seawaters have also been isolated from diatoms. However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products. Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Some C30-isoprenoids from diatom Rhizosolenia setigera.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4483651&req=5

marinedrugs-13-03672-f015: Some C30-isoprenoids from diatom Rhizosolenia setigera.

Mentions: Sea ice communities dominated by diatoms such as Nitzschia stellata, Amphiprora sp. and others in the surrounding Antarctica ice barrier contain a variety of fatty acids and different hydrocarbons, including C25:2 isoprenoids [89,90,91,92]. The monounsaturated highly branched isoprenoid (IP25), so-called “ice proxy 25”, (Figure 14) is strictly associated with sea ice and widely distributed in Arctic and subarctic sediments. It was found in sea ice diatoms, such as Hasleacrucigera and Pleurosigma stuxbergii var. rhomboides from mixed diatom assemblages collected from the Canadian Arctic [93]. IP25 can be used and was partly used as a geochemical marker in the studies on palaeo-climate to reconstruct the sea ice covering in the world’s oceans from the early Pleistocene to decades back [93]. As was mentioned above, C30 isoprenoids (triterpenoids) were also found in diatoms, and primarily in Rhizosolenia setigera [84,85,86]. They contain the so-called rhizane skeleton system. Among rhizenes, the isoprenoid hexaenes and pentaenes proved to be predominant compounds, and Z to E isomerization increased, when compared with those of haslenes. Rhizenes were also found in marine sediments. Some examples of diatom rhizenes [94,95] and their natural monocyclic derivatives [95] are given in Figure 15. Monocyclic triterpenes, isolated from the diatom by Ag+-HPLC belong to an extremely rare group of terpenoids.


Low-Molecular-Weight Metabolites from Diatoms: Structures, Biological Roles and Biosynthesis.

Stonik V, Stonik I - Mar Drugs (2015)

Some C30-isoprenoids from diatom Rhizosolenia setigera.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4483651&req=5

marinedrugs-13-03672-f015: Some C30-isoprenoids from diatom Rhizosolenia setigera.
Mentions: Sea ice communities dominated by diatoms such as Nitzschia stellata, Amphiprora sp. and others in the surrounding Antarctica ice barrier contain a variety of fatty acids and different hydrocarbons, including C25:2 isoprenoids [89,90,91,92]. The monounsaturated highly branched isoprenoid (IP25), so-called “ice proxy 25”, (Figure 14) is strictly associated with sea ice and widely distributed in Arctic and subarctic sediments. It was found in sea ice diatoms, such as Hasleacrucigera and Pleurosigma stuxbergii var. rhomboides from mixed diatom assemblages collected from the Canadian Arctic [93]. IP25 can be used and was partly used as a geochemical marker in the studies on palaeo-climate to reconstruct the sea ice covering in the world’s oceans from the early Pleistocene to decades back [93]. As was mentioned above, C30 isoprenoids (triterpenoids) were also found in diatoms, and primarily in Rhizosolenia setigera [84,85,86]. They contain the so-called rhizane skeleton system. Among rhizenes, the isoprenoid hexaenes and pentaenes proved to be predominant compounds, and Z to E isomerization increased, when compared with those of haslenes. Rhizenes were also found in marine sediments. Some examples of diatom rhizenes [94,95] and their natural monocyclic derivatives [95] are given in Figure 15. Monocyclic triterpenes, isolated from the diatom by Ag+-HPLC belong to an extremely rare group of terpenoids.

Bottom Line: These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites.However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products.Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Chemistry of Marine Natural Products, G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, FEB RAS, Vladivostok 690022, Russia. stonik@piboc.dvo.ru.

ABSTRACT
Diatoms are abundant and important biological components of the marine environment that biosynthesize diverse natural products. These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites. Several groups of diatom natural products have attracted great interest due to their potential practical application as energy sources (biofuel), valuable food constituents, and prospective materials for nanotechnology. In addition, hydrocarbons, which are used in climate reconstruction, polyamines which participate in biomineralization, new apoptotic agents against tumor cells, attractants and deterrents that regulate the biochemical communications between marine species in seawaters have also been isolated from diatoms. However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products. Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus