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Low-Molecular-Weight Metabolites from Diatoms: Structures, Biological Roles and Biosynthesis.

Stonik V, Stonik I - Mar Drugs (2015)

Bottom Line: These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites.However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products.Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Chemistry of Marine Natural Products, G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, FEB RAS, Vladivostok 690022, Russia. stonik@piboc.dvo.ru.

ABSTRACT
Diatoms are abundant and important biological components of the marine environment that biosynthesize diverse natural products. These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites. Several groups of diatom natural products have attracted great interest due to their potential practical application as energy sources (biofuel), valuable food constituents, and prospective materials for nanotechnology. In addition, hydrocarbons, which are used in climate reconstruction, polyamines which participate in biomineralization, new apoptotic agents against tumor cells, attractants and deterrents that regulate the biochemical communications between marine species in seawaters have also been isolated from diatoms. However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products. Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Volatile hydrocarbons found in diatoms, and biosyntheses of homosirene and fucoserratene in the freshwater diatoms.
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marinedrugs-13-03672-f010: Volatile hydrocarbons found in diatoms, and biosyntheses of homosirene and fucoserratene in the freshwater diatoms.

Mentions: Some marine and freshwater diatoms produce volatile alicyclic olefins [59], which are possibly phytoplanktonic pheromones. It is of particular interest that the same compounds were earlier found in brown algae. The production of ectocarpene, previously known as a pheromone of brown algae, by two species of diatoms, namely the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum and the freshwater diatom Lethodesmium undulatum, was confirmed in 1986 by Derenbach and Pesando [60]. Later Wendel and Juttner [61] established that some freshwater diatoms synthesized in a lipoxygenase-mediated manner unsaturated and alicyclic hydrocarbons, including those known from brown algae C11 pheromones such as finavarrene, hormosirene, dictyopterene A, and ectocarpene (Figure 10). These compounds in brown algae induce spermatozoid release and provide a gradient of attractant leading to the signaling of fertile female gametes. The release occurs within 8–12 s and it is one of the fastest signal responses in plants. The biological functions of these pheromones in diatoms have been studied less than those of brown algae.


Low-Molecular-Weight Metabolites from Diatoms: Structures, Biological Roles and Biosynthesis.

Stonik V, Stonik I - Mar Drugs (2015)

Volatile hydrocarbons found in diatoms, and biosyntheses of homosirene and fucoserratene in the freshwater diatoms.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4483651&req=5

marinedrugs-13-03672-f010: Volatile hydrocarbons found in diatoms, and biosyntheses of homosirene and fucoserratene in the freshwater diatoms.
Mentions: Some marine and freshwater diatoms produce volatile alicyclic olefins [59], which are possibly phytoplanktonic pheromones. It is of particular interest that the same compounds were earlier found in brown algae. The production of ectocarpene, previously known as a pheromone of brown algae, by two species of diatoms, namely the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum and the freshwater diatom Lethodesmium undulatum, was confirmed in 1986 by Derenbach and Pesando [60]. Later Wendel and Juttner [61] established that some freshwater diatoms synthesized in a lipoxygenase-mediated manner unsaturated and alicyclic hydrocarbons, including those known from brown algae C11 pheromones such as finavarrene, hormosirene, dictyopterene A, and ectocarpene (Figure 10). These compounds in brown algae induce spermatozoid release and provide a gradient of attractant leading to the signaling of fertile female gametes. The release occurs within 8–12 s and it is one of the fastest signal responses in plants. The biological functions of these pheromones in diatoms have been studied less than those of brown algae.

Bottom Line: These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites.However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products.Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Chemistry of Marine Natural Products, G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, FEB RAS, Vladivostok 690022, Russia. stonik@piboc.dvo.ru.

ABSTRACT
Diatoms are abundant and important biological components of the marine environment that biosynthesize diverse natural products. These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites. Several groups of diatom natural products have attracted great interest due to their potential practical application as energy sources (biofuel), valuable food constituents, and prospective materials for nanotechnology. In addition, hydrocarbons, which are used in climate reconstruction, polyamines which participate in biomineralization, new apoptotic agents against tumor cells, attractants and deterrents that regulate the biochemical communications between marine species in seawaters have also been isolated from diatoms. However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products. Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus