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Low-Molecular-Weight Metabolites from Diatoms: Structures, Biological Roles and Biosynthesis.

Stonik V, Stonik I - Mar Drugs (2015)

Bottom Line: These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites.However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products.Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Chemistry of Marine Natural Products, G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, FEB RAS, Vladivostok 690022, Russia. stonik@piboc.dvo.ru.

ABSTRACT
Diatoms are abundant and important biological components of the marine environment that biosynthesize diverse natural products. These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites. Several groups of diatom natural products have attracted great interest due to their potential practical application as energy sources (biofuel), valuable food constituents, and prospective materials for nanotechnology. In addition, hydrocarbons, which are used in climate reconstruction, polyamines which participate in biomineralization, new apoptotic agents against tumor cells, attractants and deterrents that regulate the biochemical communications between marine species in seawaters have also been isolated from diatoms. However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products. Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Biosynthesis of PUAs in diatoms T. rotula and S. costatum [48,49,50,51,52].
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marinedrugs-13-03672-f006: Biosynthesis of PUAs in diatoms T. rotula and S. costatum [48,49,50,51,52].

Mentions: Several additional PUAs, given in Figure 5 were identified by Italian scientists in chemical studies on the biosynthesis of PUAs in the diatom Skeletonema costatum [46]. Using labeled precursors, they showed that both C16 and C18 fatty acids of galactolipids from cultures of Skeletonemacostatum and Thalassiosira rotula [47] as well as eicosapentaenoic acid from phospholipids of these algae are transformed into PUAs. Galactolipids at the action of lipases give both C16 and C18 fatty acids, while phospholipids are mainly a source of eicosapentaenoic acid. Phospholipase PLA2 probably plays a key role in this process. The action of LOXs leads to the introduction of hydroperoxy groups in these substrates. It is of special interest that these enzymes keep their activities in seawater for some time after the disruption of diatom cells [48]. Consequent reactions with polar lipids give different deterrent PUAs. Thus, lysis of diatom cells induces the formation of a variety of lipid compounds, in which the main role is played by polyunsaturated fatty acids and enzymes responsible for their liberation from lipids and further transformation into precursor oxylipins and then into PUAs (Figure 6).


Low-Molecular-Weight Metabolites from Diatoms: Structures, Biological Roles and Biosynthesis.

Stonik V, Stonik I - Mar Drugs (2015)

Biosynthesis of PUAs in diatoms T. rotula and S. costatum [48,49,50,51,52].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4483651&req=5

marinedrugs-13-03672-f006: Biosynthesis of PUAs in diatoms T. rotula and S. costatum [48,49,50,51,52].
Mentions: Several additional PUAs, given in Figure 5 were identified by Italian scientists in chemical studies on the biosynthesis of PUAs in the diatom Skeletonema costatum [46]. Using labeled precursors, they showed that both C16 and C18 fatty acids of galactolipids from cultures of Skeletonemacostatum and Thalassiosira rotula [47] as well as eicosapentaenoic acid from phospholipids of these algae are transformed into PUAs. Galactolipids at the action of lipases give both C16 and C18 fatty acids, while phospholipids are mainly a source of eicosapentaenoic acid. Phospholipase PLA2 probably plays a key role in this process. The action of LOXs leads to the introduction of hydroperoxy groups in these substrates. It is of special interest that these enzymes keep their activities in seawater for some time after the disruption of diatom cells [48]. Consequent reactions with polar lipids give different deterrent PUAs. Thus, lysis of diatom cells induces the formation of a variety of lipid compounds, in which the main role is played by polyunsaturated fatty acids and enzymes responsible for their liberation from lipids and further transformation into precursor oxylipins and then into PUAs (Figure 6).

Bottom Line: These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites.However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products.Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Chemistry of Marine Natural Products, G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, FEB RAS, Vladivostok 690022, Russia. stonik@piboc.dvo.ru.

ABSTRACT
Diatoms are abundant and important biological components of the marine environment that biosynthesize diverse natural products. These microalgae are rich in various lipids, carotenoids, sterols and isoprenoids, some of them containing toxins and other metabolites. Several groups of diatom natural products have attracted great interest due to their potential practical application as energy sources (biofuel), valuable food constituents, and prospective materials for nanotechnology. In addition, hydrocarbons, which are used in climate reconstruction, polyamines which participate in biomineralization, new apoptotic agents against tumor cells, attractants and deterrents that regulate the biochemical communications between marine species in seawaters have also been isolated from diatoms. However, chemical studies on these microalgae are complicated by difficulties, connected with obtaining their biomass, and the influence of nutrients and contaminators in their environment as well as by seasonal and climatic factors on the biosynthesis of the corresponding natural products. Overall, the number of chemically studied diatoms is lower than that of other algae, but further studies, particularly those connected with improvements in the isolation and structure elucidation technique as well as the genomics of diatoms, promise both to increase the number of studied species with isolated biologically active natural products and to provide a clearer perception of their biosynthesis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus