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White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing.

Chen YY, Chen JC, Lin YC, Yeh ST, Huang CL - Mar Drugs (2015)

Bottom Line: White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress.The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not.We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Aquaculture, College of Life Sciences, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan. fivedollarboy555@yahoo.com.tw.

ABSTRACT
White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Transcript levels of (A) cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cytMnSOD), (B) mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD), (C) extracellular copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (ecCuZnSOD), and (D) heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of hemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract at 0 (control) and 600 mg/L for 3 h and then exposed to seawater containing 5 mg/L ammonia-N for 24 h. Data with different letters (x, y) and with different letters (x′, y′) are significantly different (p < 0.05) before and after ammonia stress between control shrimp and between GTE receiving shrimp.
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marinedrugs-13-03606-f006: Transcript levels of (A) cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cytMnSOD), (B) mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD), (C) extracellular copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (ecCuZnSOD), and (D) heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of hemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract at 0 (control) and 600 mg/L for 3 h and then exposed to seawater containing 5 mg/L ammonia-N for 24 h. Data with different letters (x, y) and with different letters (x′, y′) are significantly different (p < 0.05) before and after ammonia stress between control shrimp and between GTE receiving shrimp.

Mentions: Prior to the ammonia stress test, the transcript level of mtMnSOD of shrimp immersed in seawater containing 600 mg/L GTE was significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05). The transcript levels of cytMnSOD, ecCuZnSOD, and HSP70 of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE were up-regulated but not significantly different (p > 0.05) from control shrimp. In the ammonia stress test, the transcript levels of cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE than in control shrimp after 24 h. The transcript level of ecCuZnSOD of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE was up-regulated but not significantly different (p > 0.05) from control shrimp following ammonia stressing (Figure 6).


White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing.

Chen YY, Chen JC, Lin YC, Yeh ST, Huang CL - Mar Drugs (2015)

Transcript levels of (A) cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cytMnSOD), (B) mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD), (C) extracellular copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (ecCuZnSOD), and (D) heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of hemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract at 0 (control) and 600 mg/L for 3 h and then exposed to seawater containing 5 mg/L ammonia-N for 24 h. Data with different letters (x, y) and with different letters (x′, y′) are significantly different (p < 0.05) before and after ammonia stress between control shrimp and between GTE receiving shrimp.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4483647&req=5

marinedrugs-13-03606-f006: Transcript levels of (A) cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cytMnSOD), (B) mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD), (C) extracellular copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (ecCuZnSOD), and (D) heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) of hemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract at 0 (control) and 600 mg/L for 3 h and then exposed to seawater containing 5 mg/L ammonia-N for 24 h. Data with different letters (x, y) and with different letters (x′, y′) are significantly different (p < 0.05) before and after ammonia stress between control shrimp and between GTE receiving shrimp.
Mentions: Prior to the ammonia stress test, the transcript level of mtMnSOD of shrimp immersed in seawater containing 600 mg/L GTE was significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05). The transcript levels of cytMnSOD, ecCuZnSOD, and HSP70 of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE were up-regulated but not significantly different (p > 0.05) from control shrimp. In the ammonia stress test, the transcript levels of cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE than in control shrimp after 24 h. The transcript level of ecCuZnSOD of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE was up-regulated but not significantly different (p > 0.05) from control shrimp following ammonia stressing (Figure 6).

Bottom Line: White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress.The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not.We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Aquaculture, College of Life Sciences, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, Taiwan. fivedollarboy555@yahoo.com.tw.

ABSTRACT
White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus