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1H NMR Spectroscopy and MVA Analysis of Diplodus sargus Eating the Exotic Pest Caulerpa cylindracea.

De Pascali SA, Del Coco L, Felline S, Mollo E, Terlizzi A, Fanizzi FP - Mar Drugs (2015)

Bottom Line: The green alga Caulerpa cylindracea is a non-autochthonous and invasive species that is severely affecting the native communities in the Mediterranean Sea.Recent researches show that the native edible fish Diplodus sargus actively feeds on this alga and cellular and physiological alterations have been related to the novel alimentary habits.Fish were sampled in two seasonal periods from three different locations, each characterized by a different degree of algal abundance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Technologies (Di.S.Te.B.A.), University of Salento, Prov.le Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy. sandra.depascali@unisalento.it.

ABSTRACT
The green alga Caulerpa cylindracea is a non-autochthonous and invasive species that is severely affecting the native communities in the Mediterranean Sea. Recent researches show that the native edible fish Diplodus sargus actively feeds on this alga and cellular and physiological alterations have been related to the novel alimentary habits. The complex effects of such a trophic exposure to the invasive pest are still poorly understood. Here we report on the metabolic profiles of plasma from D. sargus individuals exposed to C. cylindracea along the southern Italian coast, using 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, Orthogonal Partial Least Square, PLS, and Orthogonal Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis, OPLS-DA). Fish were sampled in two seasonal periods from three different locations, each characterized by a different degree of algal abundance. The levels of the algal bisindole alkaloid caulerpin, which is accumulated in the fish tissues, was used as an indicator of the trophic exposure to the seaweed and related to the plasma metabolic profiles. The profiles appeared clearly influenced by the sampling period beside the content of caulerpin, while the analyses also supported a moderate alteration of lipid and choline metabolism related to the Caulerpa-based diet.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

OPLS (A) and p(corr)/VIP (B) score plot for samples fished in June using as responsible variable (Y) the liver caulerpin content (Absent = 0 μg/g d.w., Low < 10 μg/g d.w., Medium >10, <50 μg/g d.w. and High >50 μg/g d.w.).
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marinedrugs-13-03550-f004: OPLS (A) and p(corr)/VIP (B) score plot for samples fished in June using as responsible variable (Y) the liver caulerpin content (Absent = 0 μg/g d.w., Low < 10 μg/g d.w., Medium >10, <50 μg/g d.w. and High >50 μg/g d.w.).

Mentions: In this regard, the samples from June fishing (16) were further analyzed separately from those collected in October (23) by OPLS using as X matrix 185 buckets of 1H NMR spectra (columns) for each row (16 and 23 for June and October, respectively) and as responsible variable (Y) the liver content of caulerpin. The OPLS score plot (Figure 4A) of the samples fished in June gave a model (1 predictive and 1 orthogonal components) with a R2Xcum = 0.42, R2Ycum = 0.78, Q2cum = 0.34 and p[CV-ANOVA] = 0.29. Looking at the p(corr)/VIP score plot (Figure 4B) the High and Medium separate from the Low and Absent samples due to higher signals at 3.24, 3.56 and 1.92 ppm, assigned to choline, glycine and acetate, respectively. A higher content of valine and alanine (1.00, 1.04 and 1.48 ppm) was observed in sample classified as Absent and Low. In the OPLS analysis of the samples collected in October, the sample with the highest content of caulerpin located at the far values extremity as a single observation (235.75 μg/g d.w.) was excluded for achieving approximately normally distributed data. An OPLS model was then obtained (Figure 5A) for the samples fished in October using as responsible variable (Y) the caulerpin liver content (R2Xcum = 0.24, R2Ycum = 0.79, Q2cum = 0.37 and p[CV-ANOVA] = 0.077). Analysis of the p(corr)/VIP score plot (Figure 5B) showed higher content of choline (bucket at 3.24 ppm) and α/β glucose (buckets at 5.24, 3.88, 3.84, 3.76, 3.72, 3.48 ppm) for the Absent and Low whereas the High and Medium samples exhibited higher signals in the range 2.40–1.80 ppm and 1.72–1.56 ppm, attributed to increased lipids concentration. However, both June and October samples give OPLS models with good descriptive but rather weak predictive ability.


1H NMR Spectroscopy and MVA Analysis of Diplodus sargus Eating the Exotic Pest Caulerpa cylindracea.

De Pascali SA, Del Coco L, Felline S, Mollo E, Terlizzi A, Fanizzi FP - Mar Drugs (2015)

OPLS (A) and p(corr)/VIP (B) score plot for samples fished in June using as responsible variable (Y) the liver caulerpin content (Absent = 0 μg/g d.w., Low < 10 μg/g d.w., Medium >10, <50 μg/g d.w. and High >50 μg/g d.w.).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4483644&req=5

marinedrugs-13-03550-f004: OPLS (A) and p(corr)/VIP (B) score plot for samples fished in June using as responsible variable (Y) the liver caulerpin content (Absent = 0 μg/g d.w., Low < 10 μg/g d.w., Medium >10, <50 μg/g d.w. and High >50 μg/g d.w.).
Mentions: In this regard, the samples from June fishing (16) were further analyzed separately from those collected in October (23) by OPLS using as X matrix 185 buckets of 1H NMR spectra (columns) for each row (16 and 23 for June and October, respectively) and as responsible variable (Y) the liver content of caulerpin. The OPLS score plot (Figure 4A) of the samples fished in June gave a model (1 predictive and 1 orthogonal components) with a R2Xcum = 0.42, R2Ycum = 0.78, Q2cum = 0.34 and p[CV-ANOVA] = 0.29. Looking at the p(corr)/VIP score plot (Figure 4B) the High and Medium separate from the Low and Absent samples due to higher signals at 3.24, 3.56 and 1.92 ppm, assigned to choline, glycine and acetate, respectively. A higher content of valine and alanine (1.00, 1.04 and 1.48 ppm) was observed in sample classified as Absent and Low. In the OPLS analysis of the samples collected in October, the sample with the highest content of caulerpin located at the far values extremity as a single observation (235.75 μg/g d.w.) was excluded for achieving approximately normally distributed data. An OPLS model was then obtained (Figure 5A) for the samples fished in October using as responsible variable (Y) the caulerpin liver content (R2Xcum = 0.24, R2Ycum = 0.79, Q2cum = 0.37 and p[CV-ANOVA] = 0.077). Analysis of the p(corr)/VIP score plot (Figure 5B) showed higher content of choline (bucket at 3.24 ppm) and α/β glucose (buckets at 5.24, 3.88, 3.84, 3.76, 3.72, 3.48 ppm) for the Absent and Low whereas the High and Medium samples exhibited higher signals in the range 2.40–1.80 ppm and 1.72–1.56 ppm, attributed to increased lipids concentration. However, both June and October samples give OPLS models with good descriptive but rather weak predictive ability.

Bottom Line: The green alga Caulerpa cylindracea is a non-autochthonous and invasive species that is severely affecting the native communities in the Mediterranean Sea.Recent researches show that the native edible fish Diplodus sargus actively feeds on this alga and cellular and physiological alterations have been related to the novel alimentary habits.Fish were sampled in two seasonal periods from three different locations, each characterized by a different degree of algal abundance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Technologies (Di.S.Te.B.A.), University of Salento, Prov.le Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy. sandra.depascali@unisalento.it.

ABSTRACT
The green alga Caulerpa cylindracea is a non-autochthonous and invasive species that is severely affecting the native communities in the Mediterranean Sea. Recent researches show that the native edible fish Diplodus sargus actively feeds on this alga and cellular and physiological alterations have been related to the novel alimentary habits. The complex effects of such a trophic exposure to the invasive pest are still poorly understood. Here we report on the metabolic profiles of plasma from D. sargus individuals exposed to C. cylindracea along the southern Italian coast, using 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, Orthogonal Partial Least Square, PLS, and Orthogonal Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis, OPLS-DA). Fish were sampled in two seasonal periods from three different locations, each characterized by a different degree of algal abundance. The levels of the algal bisindole alkaloid caulerpin, which is accumulated in the fish tissues, was used as an indicator of the trophic exposure to the seaweed and related to the plasma metabolic profiles. The profiles appeared clearly influenced by the sampling period beside the content of caulerpin, while the analyses also supported a moderate alteration of lipid and choline metabolism related to the Caulerpa-based diet.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus