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1H NMR Spectroscopy and MVA Analysis of Diplodus sargus Eating the Exotic Pest Caulerpa cylindracea.

De Pascali SA, Del Coco L, Felline S, Mollo E, Terlizzi A, Fanizzi FP - Mar Drugs (2015)

Bottom Line: The green alga Caulerpa cylindracea is a non-autochthonous and invasive species that is severely affecting the native communities in the Mediterranean Sea.Recent researches show that the native edible fish Diplodus sargus actively feeds on this alga and cellular and physiological alterations have been related to the novel alimentary habits.Fish were sampled in two seasonal periods from three different locations, each characterized by a different degree of algal abundance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Technologies (Di.S.Te.B.A.), University of Salento, Prov.le Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy. sandra.depascali@unisalento.it.

ABSTRACT
The green alga Caulerpa cylindracea is a non-autochthonous and invasive species that is severely affecting the native communities in the Mediterranean Sea. Recent researches show that the native edible fish Diplodus sargus actively feeds on this alga and cellular and physiological alterations have been related to the novel alimentary habits. The complex effects of such a trophic exposure to the invasive pest are still poorly understood. Here we report on the metabolic profiles of plasma from D. sargus individuals exposed to C. cylindracea along the southern Italian coast, using 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, Orthogonal Partial Least Square, PLS, and Orthogonal Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis, OPLS-DA). Fish were sampled in two seasonal periods from three different locations, each characterized by a different degree of algal abundance. The levels of the algal bisindole alkaloid caulerpin, which is accumulated in the fish tissues, was used as an indicator of the trophic exposure to the seaweed and related to the plasma metabolic profiles. The profiles appeared clearly influenced by the sampling period beside the content of caulerpin, while the analyses also supported a moderate alteration of lipid and choline metabolism related to the Caulerpa-based diet.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

t5/t6 PCA score plot obtained from 1H NMR CPMG data for 39 plasma samples. Relating to the caulerpin liver content, the samples were divided in Absent (0 μg/g d.w.), Low (< 10 μg/g d.w.), Medium (>10, <50 μg/g d.w.) and High (>50 μg/g d.w.).
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marinedrugs-13-03550-f002: t5/t6 PCA score plot obtained from 1H NMR CPMG data for 39 plasma samples. Relating to the caulerpin liver content, the samples were divided in Absent (0 μg/g d.w.), Low (< 10 μg/g d.w.), Medium (>10, <50 μg/g d.w.) and High (>50 μg/g d.w.).

Mentions: PCA allowed us to obtain a general overview of the natural data grouping and to show similarities and differences in biochemical profiles. The original dataset (185 buckets from the spectral region 9.50–0.50 ppm) was rearranged in a new multivariate coordinate space in which the dimensions are ordered by decreasing explained variance of the considered data. The principal components were displayed as a set of scores (t) and a set of loadings (p), which highlight clustering or outliers and influence of input variables on t, respectively. A diagnostic showing strong outliers is given by Hotelling’s T2 [25]. This statistic is a multivariate generalization of the Student’s t-test, and provides a check for observations adhering to multivariate normality. In the Hotelling’s T2 plot (Supplementary Figure S1) two samples were discarded and excluded from further considerations due to their marked distance from the model. However, no relevant trends among samples were observed in the PCA models, except for a tendency to separate by seasonality observed in the t5/t6 score plot (Figure 2) and related loading plot (Supplementary Figure S2).


1H NMR Spectroscopy and MVA Analysis of Diplodus sargus Eating the Exotic Pest Caulerpa cylindracea.

De Pascali SA, Del Coco L, Felline S, Mollo E, Terlizzi A, Fanizzi FP - Mar Drugs (2015)

t5/t6 PCA score plot obtained from 1H NMR CPMG data for 39 plasma samples. Relating to the caulerpin liver content, the samples were divided in Absent (0 μg/g d.w.), Low (< 10 μg/g d.w.), Medium (>10, <50 μg/g d.w.) and High (>50 μg/g d.w.).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4483644&req=5

marinedrugs-13-03550-f002: t5/t6 PCA score plot obtained from 1H NMR CPMG data for 39 plasma samples. Relating to the caulerpin liver content, the samples were divided in Absent (0 μg/g d.w.), Low (< 10 μg/g d.w.), Medium (>10, <50 μg/g d.w.) and High (>50 μg/g d.w.).
Mentions: PCA allowed us to obtain a general overview of the natural data grouping and to show similarities and differences in biochemical profiles. The original dataset (185 buckets from the spectral region 9.50–0.50 ppm) was rearranged in a new multivariate coordinate space in which the dimensions are ordered by decreasing explained variance of the considered data. The principal components were displayed as a set of scores (t) and a set of loadings (p), which highlight clustering or outliers and influence of input variables on t, respectively. A diagnostic showing strong outliers is given by Hotelling’s T2 [25]. This statistic is a multivariate generalization of the Student’s t-test, and provides a check for observations adhering to multivariate normality. In the Hotelling’s T2 plot (Supplementary Figure S1) two samples were discarded and excluded from further considerations due to their marked distance from the model. However, no relevant trends among samples were observed in the PCA models, except for a tendency to separate by seasonality observed in the t5/t6 score plot (Figure 2) and related loading plot (Supplementary Figure S2).

Bottom Line: The green alga Caulerpa cylindracea is a non-autochthonous and invasive species that is severely affecting the native communities in the Mediterranean Sea.Recent researches show that the native edible fish Diplodus sargus actively feeds on this alga and cellular and physiological alterations have been related to the novel alimentary habits.Fish were sampled in two seasonal periods from three different locations, each characterized by a different degree of algal abundance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Technologies (Di.S.Te.B.A.), University of Salento, Prov.le Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy. sandra.depascali@unisalento.it.

ABSTRACT
The green alga Caulerpa cylindracea is a non-autochthonous and invasive species that is severely affecting the native communities in the Mediterranean Sea. Recent researches show that the native edible fish Diplodus sargus actively feeds on this alga and cellular and physiological alterations have been related to the novel alimentary habits. The complex effects of such a trophic exposure to the invasive pest are still poorly understood. Here we report on the metabolic profiles of plasma from D. sargus individuals exposed to C. cylindracea along the southern Italian coast, using 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, Orthogonal Partial Least Square, PLS, and Orthogonal Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis, OPLS-DA). Fish were sampled in two seasonal periods from three different locations, each characterized by a different degree of algal abundance. The levels of the algal bisindole alkaloid caulerpin, which is accumulated in the fish tissues, was used as an indicator of the trophic exposure to the seaweed and related to the plasma metabolic profiles. The profiles appeared clearly influenced by the sampling period beside the content of caulerpin, while the analyses also supported a moderate alteration of lipid and choline metabolism related to the Caulerpa-based diet.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus