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1H NMR Spectroscopy and MVA Analysis of Diplodus sargus Eating the Exotic Pest Caulerpa cylindracea.

De Pascali SA, Del Coco L, Felline S, Mollo E, Terlizzi A, Fanizzi FP - Mar Drugs (2015)

Bottom Line: The green alga Caulerpa cylindracea is a non-autochthonous and invasive species that is severely affecting the native communities in the Mediterranean Sea.Recent researches show that the native edible fish Diplodus sargus actively feeds on this alga and cellular and physiological alterations have been related to the novel alimentary habits.Fish were sampled in two seasonal periods from three different locations, each characterized by a different degree of algal abundance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Technologies (Di.S.Te.B.A.), University of Salento, Prov.le Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy. sandra.depascali@unisalento.it.

ABSTRACT
The green alga Caulerpa cylindracea is a non-autochthonous and invasive species that is severely affecting the native communities in the Mediterranean Sea. Recent researches show that the native edible fish Diplodus sargus actively feeds on this alga and cellular and physiological alterations have been related to the novel alimentary habits. The complex effects of such a trophic exposure to the invasive pest are still poorly understood. Here we report on the metabolic profiles of plasma from D. sargus individuals exposed to C. cylindracea along the southern Italian coast, using 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, Orthogonal Partial Least Square, PLS, and Orthogonal Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis, OPLS-DA). Fish were sampled in two seasonal periods from three different locations, each characterized by a different degree of algal abundance. The levels of the algal bisindole alkaloid caulerpin, which is accumulated in the fish tissues, was used as an indicator of the trophic exposure to the seaweed and related to the plasma metabolic profiles. The profiles appeared clearly influenced by the sampling period beside the content of caulerpin, while the analyses also supported a moderate alteration of lipid and choline metabolism related to the Caulerpa-based diet.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Representative 1H NMR CPMG spin-echo spectrum of fish blood plasma in D2O.
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marinedrugs-13-03550-f001: Representative 1H NMR CPMG spin-echo spectrum of fish blood plasma in D2O.

Mentions: In order to understand the alga impact on seabream plasma metabolomic profiles, 41 blood samples of D. sargus fished in two periods (June and October) in invaded areas of Apulia (Brindisi, BR, Porto Cesareo, PC, Torre Guaceto, TG) were collected. The fish exposure to the invasive alga was previously assessed by measuring the caulerpin level in the animal liver [16], as summarized in Table 1, while the plasma samples were classified according to caulerpin content in the liver of the corresponding fish individuals. Not considering the sampling site, the samples were thus divided in four groups corresponding to caulerpin fish content (see Experimental Section). A typical one-dimensional (1D) 1H NMR spectrum of the fish blood plasma (selected for graphical purpose due to the presence of most of the metabolite NMR signals) is reported in Figure 1. More than twenty metabolites were identified in the 1H NMR spectra and assigned on the basis of 2D NMR spectra analysis (2D 1H Jres, 1H COSY, 1H 13C HSQC and HMBC) and by comparison with published data [17,18,19,20,21,22]. The presaturated 1H NMR CPMG spectrum is dominated by amino acids, organic acid and broad resonances originating mainly from lipoprotein lipids. Despite the use of CPMG sequence [23], some broad resonances from lipids in lipoproteins can be observed in the blood plasma NMR spectra. This is due to the flexibility of certain parts of such macromolecules making the T2 for those specific protons longer if compared with the rest of the molecule [21]. Although lipoproteins in blood serum or plasma have been extensively studied by using NMR spectra deconvolution techniques [24] and their analysis could be interesting for further studies, we focused our attention on small metabolites plasma profiles. Relevant 1H NMR data are reported in Table 2. Metabolic profiles of plasma characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy were therefore studied with multivariate analyses (PCA, OPLS and OPLS-DA).


1H NMR Spectroscopy and MVA Analysis of Diplodus sargus Eating the Exotic Pest Caulerpa cylindracea.

De Pascali SA, Del Coco L, Felline S, Mollo E, Terlizzi A, Fanizzi FP - Mar Drugs (2015)

Representative 1H NMR CPMG spin-echo spectrum of fish blood plasma in D2O.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4483644&req=5

marinedrugs-13-03550-f001: Representative 1H NMR CPMG spin-echo spectrum of fish blood plasma in D2O.
Mentions: In order to understand the alga impact on seabream plasma metabolomic profiles, 41 blood samples of D. sargus fished in two periods (June and October) in invaded areas of Apulia (Brindisi, BR, Porto Cesareo, PC, Torre Guaceto, TG) were collected. The fish exposure to the invasive alga was previously assessed by measuring the caulerpin level in the animal liver [16], as summarized in Table 1, while the plasma samples were classified according to caulerpin content in the liver of the corresponding fish individuals. Not considering the sampling site, the samples were thus divided in four groups corresponding to caulerpin fish content (see Experimental Section). A typical one-dimensional (1D) 1H NMR spectrum of the fish blood plasma (selected for graphical purpose due to the presence of most of the metabolite NMR signals) is reported in Figure 1. More than twenty metabolites were identified in the 1H NMR spectra and assigned on the basis of 2D NMR spectra analysis (2D 1H Jres, 1H COSY, 1H 13C HSQC and HMBC) and by comparison with published data [17,18,19,20,21,22]. The presaturated 1H NMR CPMG spectrum is dominated by amino acids, organic acid and broad resonances originating mainly from lipoprotein lipids. Despite the use of CPMG sequence [23], some broad resonances from lipids in lipoproteins can be observed in the blood plasma NMR spectra. This is due to the flexibility of certain parts of such macromolecules making the T2 for those specific protons longer if compared with the rest of the molecule [21]. Although lipoproteins in blood serum or plasma have been extensively studied by using NMR spectra deconvolution techniques [24] and their analysis could be interesting for further studies, we focused our attention on small metabolites plasma profiles. Relevant 1H NMR data are reported in Table 2. Metabolic profiles of plasma characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy were therefore studied with multivariate analyses (PCA, OPLS and OPLS-DA).

Bottom Line: The green alga Caulerpa cylindracea is a non-autochthonous and invasive species that is severely affecting the native communities in the Mediterranean Sea.Recent researches show that the native edible fish Diplodus sargus actively feeds on this alga and cellular and physiological alterations have been related to the novel alimentary habits.Fish were sampled in two seasonal periods from three different locations, each characterized by a different degree of algal abundance.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Technologies (Di.S.Te.B.A.), University of Salento, Prov.le Lecce-Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy. sandra.depascali@unisalento.it.

ABSTRACT
The green alga Caulerpa cylindracea is a non-autochthonous and invasive species that is severely affecting the native communities in the Mediterranean Sea. Recent researches show that the native edible fish Diplodus sargus actively feeds on this alga and cellular and physiological alterations have been related to the novel alimentary habits. The complex effects of such a trophic exposure to the invasive pest are still poorly understood. Here we report on the metabolic profiles of plasma from D. sargus individuals exposed to C. cylindracea along the southern Italian coast, using 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis, PCA, Orthogonal Partial Least Square, PLS, and Orthogonal Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis, OPLS-DA). Fish were sampled in two seasonal periods from three different locations, each characterized by a different degree of algal abundance. The levels of the algal bisindole alkaloid caulerpin, which is accumulated in the fish tissues, was used as an indicator of the trophic exposure to the seaweed and related to the plasma metabolic profiles. The profiles appeared clearly influenced by the sampling period beside the content of caulerpin, while the analyses also supported a moderate alteration of lipid and choline metabolism related to the Caulerpa-based diet.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus