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Modelling Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Dispersion from Marine Salmon Farms in the Discovery Islands, British Columbia, Canada.

Foreman MG, Guo M, Garver KA, Stucchi D, Chandler P, Wan D, Morrison J, Tuele D - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Numerical particles released from infected farm fish in accordance with IHNV shedding rates estimated through laboratory experiments are dispersed by model oceanic flows.Results demonstrate that neighbouring naïve farms can become exposed to IHNV via water-borne transport from an IHNV diseased farm, with a higher risk in April than July, and that many events in the sequence of farm outbreaks in 2001-2002 are consistent with higher risks in our farm connectivity matrix.Applications to other diseases, transfers between farmed and wild fish, and the effect of vaccinations are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, B.C., V8L 4B2, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Finite volume ocean circulation and particle tracking models are used to simulate water-borne transmission of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) among Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farms in the Discovery Islands region of British Columbia, Canada. Historical simulations for April and July 2010 are carried out to demonstrate the seasonal impact of river discharge, wind, ultra-violet (UV) radiation, and heat flux conditions on near-surface currents, viral dispersion and survival. Numerical particles released from infected farm fish in accordance with IHNV shedding rates estimated through laboratory experiments are dispersed by model oceanic flows. Viral particles are inactivated by ambient UV radiation levels and by the natural microbial community at rates derived through laboratory studies. Viral concentration maps showing temporal and spatial changes are produced and combined with lab-determined minimum infectious dosages to estimate the infective connectivity among farms. Results demonstrate that neighbouring naïve farms can become exposed to IHNV via water-borne transport from an IHNV diseased farm, with a higher risk in April than July, and that many events in the sequence of farm outbreaks in 2001-2002 are consistent with higher risks in our farm connectivity matrix. Applications to other diseases, transfers between farmed and wild fish, and the effect of vaccinations are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Average hourly UV radiation (A and B, W m-2) absorbed by the ocean for April and July 2010.
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pone.0130951.g011: Average hourly UV radiation (A and B, W m-2) absorbed by the ocean for April and July 2010.

Mentions: Fig 11 shows average hourly UV radiation absorbed at the ocean surface for April and July 2010. Values are restricted to the A and B frequency bands, as measured at the DFO weather stations (Fig 6 in [10]), and have been reduced by 8%, the average ocean surface albedo for UV. Zero values during the night are clearly evident, and the longer days, less cloud cover and a higher solar angle mean considerably more radiation entering surface waters in July than in April.


Modelling Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Dispersion from Marine Salmon Farms in the Discovery Islands, British Columbia, Canada.

Foreman MG, Guo M, Garver KA, Stucchi D, Chandler P, Wan D, Morrison J, Tuele D - PLoS ONE (2015)

Average hourly UV radiation (A and B, W m-2) absorbed by the ocean for April and July 2010.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4482787&req=5

pone.0130951.g011: Average hourly UV radiation (A and B, W m-2) absorbed by the ocean for April and July 2010.
Mentions: Fig 11 shows average hourly UV radiation absorbed at the ocean surface for April and July 2010. Values are restricted to the A and B frequency bands, as measured at the DFO weather stations (Fig 6 in [10]), and have been reduced by 8%, the average ocean surface albedo for UV. Zero values during the night are clearly evident, and the longer days, less cloud cover and a higher solar angle mean considerably more radiation entering surface waters in July than in April.

Bottom Line: Numerical particles released from infected farm fish in accordance with IHNV shedding rates estimated through laboratory experiments are dispersed by model oceanic flows.Results demonstrate that neighbouring naïve farms can become exposed to IHNV via water-borne transport from an IHNV diseased farm, with a higher risk in April than July, and that many events in the sequence of farm outbreaks in 2001-2002 are consistent with higher risks in our farm connectivity matrix.Applications to other diseases, transfers between farmed and wild fish, and the effect of vaccinations are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, B.C., V8L 4B2, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Finite volume ocean circulation and particle tracking models are used to simulate water-borne transmission of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) among Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farms in the Discovery Islands region of British Columbia, Canada. Historical simulations for April and July 2010 are carried out to demonstrate the seasonal impact of river discharge, wind, ultra-violet (UV) radiation, and heat flux conditions on near-surface currents, viral dispersion and survival. Numerical particles released from infected farm fish in accordance with IHNV shedding rates estimated through laboratory experiments are dispersed by model oceanic flows. Viral particles are inactivated by ambient UV radiation levels and by the natural microbial community at rates derived through laboratory studies. Viral concentration maps showing temporal and spatial changes are produced and combined with lab-determined minimum infectious dosages to estimate the infective connectivity among farms. Results demonstrate that neighbouring naïve farms can become exposed to IHNV via water-borne transport from an IHNV diseased farm, with a higher risk in April than July, and that many events in the sequence of farm outbreaks in 2001-2002 are consistent with higher risks in our farm connectivity matrix. Applications to other diseases, transfers between farmed and wild fish, and the effect of vaccinations are also discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus