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Nowhere to Go but Up: Impacts of Climate Change on Demographics of a Short-Range Endemic (Crotalus willardi obscurus) in the Sky-Islands of Southwestern North America.

Davis MA, Douglas MR, Webb CT, Collyer ML, Holycross AT, Painter CW, Kamees LK, Douglas ME - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Mean home range (0.07 km2) is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands.Genetic rescue, a management approach successfully employed in similar situations, is ill advised in this situation due to climate-driven habitat change in the sky islands.It is a bellwether for the eventual climate-driven collapse of the Madrean pine-oak ecosystem, one of Earth's three recognized megadiversity centers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Biodiversity elements with narrow niches and restricted distributions (i.e., 'short range endemics,' SREs) are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The New Mexico Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus, CWO), an SRE listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act within three sky islands of southwestern North America, is constrained at low elevation by drought and at high elevation by wildfire. We combined long-term recapture and molecular data with demographic and niche modeling to gauge its climate-driven status, distribution, and projected longevity. The largest population (Animas) is numerically constricted (N = 151), with few breeding adults (Nb = 24) and an elevated inbreeding coefficient (ΔF = 0.77; 100 years). Mean home range (0.07 km2) is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands. Demographic values, when gauged against those displayed by other endangered/Red-Listed reptiles [e.g., Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)], are either comparable or markedly lower. Survival rate differs significantly between genders (female

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Bioclimatic variables (WorldClim database) incorporated with193 GPS capture coordinates for Crotalus willardi obscurus in the sky Islands of southwestern North America provide climate envelopes and core habitat areas in ArcGIS 10.Color density = strong habitat preference, with black/dark grey being most positive. Red circles = sampling locations. 2014 = current climate envelope; 2080 = a conservative climate envelope projected 66 years in the future.
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pone.0131067.g003: Bioclimatic variables (WorldClim database) incorporated with193 GPS capture coordinates for Crotalus willardi obscurus in the sky Islands of southwestern North America provide climate envelopes and core habitat areas in ArcGIS 10.Color density = strong habitat preference, with black/dark grey being most positive. Red circles = sampling locations. 2014 = current climate envelope; 2080 = a conservative climate envelope projected 66 years in the future.

Mentions: A total of 96 adults and 97 juveniles were captured over 18 years. Adult sex ratio was = 1:1. Survival rate was significantly higher for males, but did not differ between females and juveniles. Capture probabilities were 0.21±0.06 for adults and 0.39±0.12 for juveniles, respectively (Table 1). Adult home ranges were small (mean = 0.07±0.2 km2), overlapping, and not significantly different by sex, body size, or year, with non-significant interactions. Yet, home range estimate for CWO differs significantly from those recorded for six rattlesnake species (Table 2; Fig 3), irrespective of gender or body size.


Nowhere to Go but Up: Impacts of Climate Change on Demographics of a Short-Range Endemic (Crotalus willardi obscurus) in the Sky-Islands of Southwestern North America.

Davis MA, Douglas MR, Webb CT, Collyer ML, Holycross AT, Painter CW, Kamees LK, Douglas ME - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bioclimatic variables (WorldClim database) incorporated with193 GPS capture coordinates for Crotalus willardi obscurus in the sky Islands of southwestern North America provide climate envelopes and core habitat areas in ArcGIS 10.Color density = strong habitat preference, with black/dark grey being most positive. Red circles = sampling locations. 2014 = current climate envelope; 2080 = a conservative climate envelope projected 66 years in the future.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4482755&req=5

pone.0131067.g003: Bioclimatic variables (WorldClim database) incorporated with193 GPS capture coordinates for Crotalus willardi obscurus in the sky Islands of southwestern North America provide climate envelopes and core habitat areas in ArcGIS 10.Color density = strong habitat preference, with black/dark grey being most positive. Red circles = sampling locations. 2014 = current climate envelope; 2080 = a conservative climate envelope projected 66 years in the future.
Mentions: A total of 96 adults and 97 juveniles were captured over 18 years. Adult sex ratio was = 1:1. Survival rate was significantly higher for males, but did not differ between females and juveniles. Capture probabilities were 0.21±0.06 for adults and 0.39±0.12 for juveniles, respectively (Table 1). Adult home ranges were small (mean = 0.07±0.2 km2), overlapping, and not significantly different by sex, body size, or year, with non-significant interactions. Yet, home range estimate for CWO differs significantly from those recorded for six rattlesnake species (Table 2; Fig 3), irrespective of gender or body size.

Bottom Line: Mean home range (0.07 km2) is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands.Genetic rescue, a management approach successfully employed in similar situations, is ill advised in this situation due to climate-driven habitat change in the sky islands.It is a bellwether for the eventual climate-driven collapse of the Madrean pine-oak ecosystem, one of Earth's three recognized megadiversity centers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Biodiversity elements with narrow niches and restricted distributions (i.e., 'short range endemics,' SREs) are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The New Mexico Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus, CWO), an SRE listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act within three sky islands of southwestern North America, is constrained at low elevation by drought and at high elevation by wildfire. We combined long-term recapture and molecular data with demographic and niche modeling to gauge its climate-driven status, distribution, and projected longevity. The largest population (Animas) is numerically constricted (N = 151), with few breeding adults (Nb = 24) and an elevated inbreeding coefficient (ΔF = 0.77; 100 years). Mean home range (0.07 km2) is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands. Demographic values, when gauged against those displayed by other endangered/Red-Listed reptiles [e.g., Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)], are either comparable or markedly lower. Survival rate differs significantly between genders (female

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus