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Nowhere to Go but Up: Impacts of Climate Change on Demographics of a Short-Range Endemic (Crotalus willardi obscurus) in the Sky-Islands of Southwestern North America.

Davis MA, Douglas MR, Webb CT, Collyer ML, Holycross AT, Painter CW, Kamees LK, Douglas ME - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Mean home range (0.07 km2) is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands.Genetic rescue, a management approach successfully employed in similar situations, is ill advised in this situation due to climate-driven habitat change in the sky islands.It is a bellwether for the eventual climate-driven collapse of the Madrean pine-oak ecosystem, one of Earth's three recognized megadiversity centers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Biodiversity elements with narrow niches and restricted distributions (i.e., 'short range endemics,' SREs) are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The New Mexico Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus, CWO), an SRE listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act within three sky islands of southwestern North America, is constrained at low elevation by drought and at high elevation by wildfire. We combined long-term recapture and molecular data with demographic and niche modeling to gauge its climate-driven status, distribution, and projected longevity. The largest population (Animas) is numerically constricted (N = 151), with few breeding adults (Nb = 24) and an elevated inbreeding coefficient (ΔF = 0.77; 100 years). Mean home range (0.07 km2) is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands. Demographic values, when gauged against those displayed by other endangered/Red-Listed reptiles [e.g., Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)], are either comparable or markedly lower. Survival rate differs significantly between genders (female

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean home range estimates for Crotalus willardi obscurus and six other rattlesnake species for which similar data were available.Horizontal red bar = mean value. Cva = Crotalus viridis abyssus; Ca = Crotalus adamanteus; Scc = Sistrurus catenatus catenatus; Cc = Crotalus cerastes; Sce = Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii; Ch = Crotalus horridus. See Table 1 for literature citations and test statistics.
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pone.0131067.g002: Mean home range estimates for Crotalus willardi obscurus and six other rattlesnake species for which similar data were available.Horizontal red bar = mean value. Cva = Crotalus viridis abyssus; Ca = Crotalus adamanteus; Scc = Sistrurus catenatus catenatus; Cc = Crotalus cerastes; Sce = Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii; Ch = Crotalus horridus. See Table 1 for literature citations and test statistics.

Mentions: Within this matrix, CWO (Fig 1) is constrained to montane woodlands between 1,475 m and 2,800 m elevation in three sky-islands (i.e., Animas Mountain = AMN, Peloncillos Mountains = PEL, Sierra San Luis Mountains = SSL) of southeastern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, and north-central México (Fig 2). The species’ unique natural history, including extreme endemism, small population size, ancestral ecology, and acute over-specialization, not only promoted listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), but also illegal collection in the pet trade.


Nowhere to Go but Up: Impacts of Climate Change on Demographics of a Short-Range Endemic (Crotalus willardi obscurus) in the Sky-Islands of Southwestern North America.

Davis MA, Douglas MR, Webb CT, Collyer ML, Holycross AT, Painter CW, Kamees LK, Douglas ME - PLoS ONE (2015)

Mean home range estimates for Crotalus willardi obscurus and six other rattlesnake species for which similar data were available.Horizontal red bar = mean value. Cva = Crotalus viridis abyssus; Ca = Crotalus adamanteus; Scc = Sistrurus catenatus catenatus; Cc = Crotalus cerastes; Sce = Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii; Ch = Crotalus horridus. See Table 1 for literature citations and test statistics.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4482755&req=5

pone.0131067.g002: Mean home range estimates for Crotalus willardi obscurus and six other rattlesnake species for which similar data were available.Horizontal red bar = mean value. Cva = Crotalus viridis abyssus; Ca = Crotalus adamanteus; Scc = Sistrurus catenatus catenatus; Cc = Crotalus cerastes; Sce = Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii; Ch = Crotalus horridus. See Table 1 for literature citations and test statistics.
Mentions: Within this matrix, CWO (Fig 1) is constrained to montane woodlands between 1,475 m and 2,800 m elevation in three sky-islands (i.e., Animas Mountain = AMN, Peloncillos Mountains = PEL, Sierra San Luis Mountains = SSL) of southeastern Arizona, southwestern New Mexico, and north-central México (Fig 2). The species’ unique natural history, including extreme endemism, small population size, ancestral ecology, and acute over-specialization, not only promoted listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), but also illegal collection in the pet trade.

Bottom Line: Mean home range (0.07 km2) is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands.Genetic rescue, a management approach successfully employed in similar situations, is ill advised in this situation due to climate-driven habitat change in the sky islands.It is a bellwether for the eventual climate-driven collapse of the Madrean pine-oak ecosystem, one of Earth's three recognized megadiversity centers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Biodiversity elements with narrow niches and restricted distributions (i.e., 'short range endemics,' SREs) are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The New Mexico Ridge-nosed Rattlesnake (Crotalus willardi obscurus, CWO), an SRE listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act within three sky islands of southwestern North America, is constrained at low elevation by drought and at high elevation by wildfire. We combined long-term recapture and molecular data with demographic and niche modeling to gauge its climate-driven status, distribution, and projected longevity. The largest population (Animas) is numerically constricted (N = 151), with few breeding adults (Nb = 24) and an elevated inbreeding coefficient (ΔF = 0.77; 100 years). Mean home range (0.07 km2) is significantly smaller compared to other North American rattlesnakes, and movements are within, not among sky islands. Demographic values, when gauged against those displayed by other endangered/Red-Listed reptiles [e.g., Loggerhead Sea Turtle (Caretta caretta)], are either comparable or markedly lower. Survival rate differs significantly between genders (female

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus