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Planning the International Competition Schedules for the Health of Elite Athletes: A 21-Year Retrospective Study Evaluating the Effectiveness and Economic Impact in an Olympic Sport.

Malagoni AM, Lamberti N, Carrabre JE, Litmanen H, Jeannier P, Zhukovskaja L, Dal Follo D, Zambon C, Resch N, Manfredini F - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Data from the period pre (1994-2000) and post (2001-2007) the intervention, as well as follow-up (2008-2015), were compared and analyzed in relation to the federation's budget.The maximal stress score decreased over time.The management of an athlete's potential source of stress by an international federation stabilized the competition load over time, but it did not affect the budget.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: International Biathlon Union, Salzburg, Austria.

ABSTRACT

Background: The increased number of trips and competitions scheduled in the international agonistic calendars meets commercial demands while acting as a source of stress for the athletes. A model, developed in biathlons to monitor the so-called competition load, revealed an upward trend over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a 21-year period, the effects of the International Biathlon Union's rescheduling of the competitive calendars to control the competition load, as well as its stability over time and the economic impact of this intervention.

Methods: For each season competition, the load factors from the international agonistic calendar (number of venues/events, competition days/distance) were considered, and the athletes' daily and maximal stress scores were calculated. The calendar rescheduling, which started in 2001, involved the length of competitions, number of resting days and frequency of travels. Data from the period pre (1994-2000) and post (2001-2007) the intervention, as well as follow-up (2008-2015), were compared and analyzed in relation to the federation's budget.

Results: The competition load and athletes' daily stress score progressively increased pre, plateaued post and remained stable in follow-up. Their annual variations within the final two periods were significantly lower than in the pre period, in spite of the higher average values. The maximal stress score decreased over time. The direct correlation between most of the competition load factors with the economic budget present in pre was lost in post and follow-up. Similarly, the athletes' daily stress score had a stable trend in post and follow-up, while budget continued to increase.

Conclusions: The management of an athlete's potential source of stress by an international federation stabilized the competition load over time, but it did not affect the budget. Furthermore, it uncoupled the relationship between the athlete's effort and federation income.

No MeSH data available.


Graphical representation of the variation in the athletes’ daily stress score ADSS (blue) and budget (orange) over the three periods under study, calculated as the values for each year minus the value of the first year for each period.The budget for the 2014–2015 season is not yet available.
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pone.0130338.g004: Graphical representation of the variation in the athletes’ daily stress score ADSS (blue) and budget (orange) over the three periods under study, calculated as the values for each year minus the value of the first year for each period.The budget for the 2014–2015 season is not yet available.

Mentions: The budget continuously increased; the post and follow-up values were higher than the pre period and there were increasing variations (Table 1). There was a significant, direct correlation between the budget and most CL factors in the pre period, including the number of venues and events (rho = 0.81, p = 0.029 and rho = 0.89, p = 0.007, respectively), total and daily race distance (rho = 0.89, p = 0.007 and rho = 0.79, p = 0.036, respectively) and resting days and travels (rho = -0.85, p = 0.016 and rho = 0.93, p = 0.003, respectively). In the post period, there was only a correlation with budget for the number of events and total race distance (rho = 0.99, p = 0.001 and rho = 0.80, p = 0.031, respectively). No correlations were observed in the follow-up period. Notably, the significant relationship between the ADSS and budget observed in the pre period (rho = 0.82, p = 0.023) was lost in the post and follow-up periods (rho = 0.04 and rho = 0.31, respectively, p = n.s.) (Fig 3). There was no observed correlation between the MSS and budget. Considering the intra-period variations, an evident uncoupling of the ADSS changes and budget variations was observed (Fig 4).


Planning the International Competition Schedules for the Health of Elite Athletes: A 21-Year Retrospective Study Evaluating the Effectiveness and Economic Impact in an Olympic Sport.

Malagoni AM, Lamberti N, Carrabre JE, Litmanen H, Jeannier P, Zhukovskaja L, Dal Follo D, Zambon C, Resch N, Manfredini F - PLoS ONE (2015)

Graphical representation of the variation in the athletes’ daily stress score ADSS (blue) and budget (orange) over the three periods under study, calculated as the values for each year minus the value of the first year for each period.The budget for the 2014–2015 season is not yet available.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4482751&req=5

pone.0130338.g004: Graphical representation of the variation in the athletes’ daily stress score ADSS (blue) and budget (orange) over the three periods under study, calculated as the values for each year minus the value of the first year for each period.The budget for the 2014–2015 season is not yet available.
Mentions: The budget continuously increased; the post and follow-up values were higher than the pre period and there were increasing variations (Table 1). There was a significant, direct correlation between the budget and most CL factors in the pre period, including the number of venues and events (rho = 0.81, p = 0.029 and rho = 0.89, p = 0.007, respectively), total and daily race distance (rho = 0.89, p = 0.007 and rho = 0.79, p = 0.036, respectively) and resting days and travels (rho = -0.85, p = 0.016 and rho = 0.93, p = 0.003, respectively). In the post period, there was only a correlation with budget for the number of events and total race distance (rho = 0.99, p = 0.001 and rho = 0.80, p = 0.031, respectively). No correlations were observed in the follow-up period. Notably, the significant relationship between the ADSS and budget observed in the pre period (rho = 0.82, p = 0.023) was lost in the post and follow-up periods (rho = 0.04 and rho = 0.31, respectively, p = n.s.) (Fig 3). There was no observed correlation between the MSS and budget. Considering the intra-period variations, an evident uncoupling of the ADSS changes and budget variations was observed (Fig 4).

Bottom Line: Data from the period pre (1994-2000) and post (2001-2007) the intervention, as well as follow-up (2008-2015), were compared and analyzed in relation to the federation's budget.The maximal stress score decreased over time.The management of an athlete's potential source of stress by an international federation stabilized the competition load over time, but it did not affect the budget.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: International Biathlon Union, Salzburg, Austria.

ABSTRACT

Background: The increased number of trips and competitions scheduled in the international agonistic calendars meets commercial demands while acting as a source of stress for the athletes. A model, developed in biathlons to monitor the so-called competition load, revealed an upward trend over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a 21-year period, the effects of the International Biathlon Union's rescheduling of the competitive calendars to control the competition load, as well as its stability over time and the economic impact of this intervention.

Methods: For each season competition, the load factors from the international agonistic calendar (number of venues/events, competition days/distance) were considered, and the athletes' daily and maximal stress scores were calculated. The calendar rescheduling, which started in 2001, involved the length of competitions, number of resting days and frequency of travels. Data from the period pre (1994-2000) and post (2001-2007) the intervention, as well as follow-up (2008-2015), were compared and analyzed in relation to the federation's budget.

Results: The competition load and athletes' daily stress score progressively increased pre, plateaued post and remained stable in follow-up. Their annual variations within the final two periods were significantly lower than in the pre period, in spite of the higher average values. The maximal stress score decreased over time. The direct correlation between most of the competition load factors with the economic budget present in pre was lost in post and follow-up. Similarly, the athletes' daily stress score had a stable trend in post and follow-up, while budget continued to increase.

Conclusions: The management of an athlete's potential source of stress by an international federation stabilized the competition load over time, but it did not affect the budget. Furthermore, it uncoupled the relationship between the athlete's effort and federation income.

No MeSH data available.