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Planning the International Competition Schedules for the Health of Elite Athletes: A 21-Year Retrospective Study Evaluating the Effectiveness and Economic Impact in an Olympic Sport.

Malagoni AM, Lamberti N, Carrabre JE, Litmanen H, Jeannier P, Zhukovskaja L, Dal Follo D, Zambon C, Resch N, Manfredini F - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Data from the period pre (1994-2000) and post (2001-2007) the intervention, as well as follow-up (2008-2015), were compared and analyzed in relation to the federation's budget.The maximal stress score decreased over time.The management of an athlete's potential source of stress by an international federation stabilized the competition load over time, but it did not affect the budget.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: International Biathlon Union, Salzburg, Austria.

ABSTRACT

Background: The increased number of trips and competitions scheduled in the international agonistic calendars meets commercial demands while acting as a source of stress for the athletes. A model, developed in biathlons to monitor the so-called competition load, revealed an upward trend over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a 21-year period, the effects of the International Biathlon Union's rescheduling of the competitive calendars to control the competition load, as well as its stability over time and the economic impact of this intervention.

Methods: For each season competition, the load factors from the international agonistic calendar (number of venues/events, competition days/distance) were considered, and the athletes' daily and maximal stress scores were calculated. The calendar rescheduling, which started in 2001, involved the length of competitions, number of resting days and frequency of travels. Data from the period pre (1994-2000) and post (2001-2007) the intervention, as well as follow-up (2008-2015), were compared and analyzed in relation to the federation's budget.

Results: The competition load and athletes' daily stress score progressively increased pre, plateaued post and remained stable in follow-up. Their annual variations within the final two periods were significantly lower than in the pre period, in spite of the higher average values. The maximal stress score decreased over time. The direct correlation between most of the competition load factors with the economic budget present in pre was lost in post and follow-up. Similarly, the athletes' daily stress score had a stable trend in post and follow-up, while budget continued to increase.

Conclusions: The management of an athlete's potential source of stress by an international federation stabilized the competition load over time, but it did not affect the budget. Furthermore, it uncoupled the relationship between the athlete's effort and federation income.

No MeSH data available.


Calculation of the maximal stress score.The MSS is located on the highest values of the tendency line, as indicated by the red circle.
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pone.0130338.g001: Calculation of the maximal stress score.The MSS is located on the highest values of the tendency line, as indicated by the red circle.

Mentions: As previously described [1], the MSS was calculated by plotting the SPs for each day throughout the entire season and drawing the line of tendency for these data, expressed as a moving average of seven days. The MSS corresponded to the highest value identified on this line (Fig 1). The SP calculation was based on the events as they were scheduled on the calendars. Possible changes of venues or of competition schedules that occurred throughout the season (e.g., for weather conditions) were not considered.


Planning the International Competition Schedules for the Health of Elite Athletes: A 21-Year Retrospective Study Evaluating the Effectiveness and Economic Impact in an Olympic Sport.

Malagoni AM, Lamberti N, Carrabre JE, Litmanen H, Jeannier P, Zhukovskaja L, Dal Follo D, Zambon C, Resch N, Manfredini F - PLoS ONE (2015)

Calculation of the maximal stress score.The MSS is located on the highest values of the tendency line, as indicated by the red circle.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4482751&req=5

pone.0130338.g001: Calculation of the maximal stress score.The MSS is located on the highest values of the tendency line, as indicated by the red circle.
Mentions: As previously described [1], the MSS was calculated by plotting the SPs for each day throughout the entire season and drawing the line of tendency for these data, expressed as a moving average of seven days. The MSS corresponded to the highest value identified on this line (Fig 1). The SP calculation was based on the events as they were scheduled on the calendars. Possible changes of venues or of competition schedules that occurred throughout the season (e.g., for weather conditions) were not considered.

Bottom Line: Data from the period pre (1994-2000) and post (2001-2007) the intervention, as well as follow-up (2008-2015), were compared and analyzed in relation to the federation's budget.The maximal stress score decreased over time.The management of an athlete's potential source of stress by an international federation stabilized the competition load over time, but it did not affect the budget.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: International Biathlon Union, Salzburg, Austria.

ABSTRACT

Background: The increased number of trips and competitions scheduled in the international agonistic calendars meets commercial demands while acting as a source of stress for the athletes. A model, developed in biathlons to monitor the so-called competition load, revealed an upward trend over time. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a 21-year period, the effects of the International Biathlon Union's rescheduling of the competitive calendars to control the competition load, as well as its stability over time and the economic impact of this intervention.

Methods: For each season competition, the load factors from the international agonistic calendar (number of venues/events, competition days/distance) were considered, and the athletes' daily and maximal stress scores were calculated. The calendar rescheduling, which started in 2001, involved the length of competitions, number of resting days and frequency of travels. Data from the period pre (1994-2000) and post (2001-2007) the intervention, as well as follow-up (2008-2015), were compared and analyzed in relation to the federation's budget.

Results: The competition load and athletes' daily stress score progressively increased pre, plateaued post and remained stable in follow-up. Their annual variations within the final two periods were significantly lower than in the pre period, in spite of the higher average values. The maximal stress score decreased over time. The direct correlation between most of the competition load factors with the economic budget present in pre was lost in post and follow-up. Similarly, the athletes' daily stress score had a stable trend in post and follow-up, while budget continued to increase.

Conclusions: The management of an athlete's potential source of stress by an international federation stabilized the competition load over time, but it did not affect the budget. Furthermore, it uncoupled the relationship between the athlete's effort and federation income.

No MeSH data available.