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Three-Dimensional Muscle Architecture and Comprehensive Dynamic Properties of Rabbit Gastrocnemius, Plantaris and Soleus: Input for Simulation Studies.

Siebert T, Leichsenring K, Rode C, Wick C, Stutzig N, Schubert H, Blickhan R, Böl M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Simulation results depend heavily on rough parameter estimates often obtained by scaling of one muscle parameter set.The lowest effect strength for soleus supports the idea that these effects adapt to muscle function.The careful acquisition of typical dynamical parameters (e.g. force-length and force-velocity relations, force elongation relations of passive components), enhancement and depression effects, and 3D muscle architecture of calf muscles provides valuable comprehensive datasets for e.g. simulations with neuro-muscular models, development of more realistic muscle models, or simulation of muscle packages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Sport and Motion Science, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The vastly increasing number of neuro-muscular simulation studies (with increasing numbers of muscles used per simulation) is in sharp contrast to a narrow database of necessary muscle parameters. Simulation results depend heavily on rough parameter estimates often obtained by scaling of one muscle parameter set. However, in vivo muscles differ in their individual properties and architecture. Here we provide a comprehensive dataset of dynamic (n = 6 per muscle) and geometric (three-dimensional architecture, n = 3 per muscle) muscle properties of the rabbit calf muscles gastrocnemius, plantaris, and soleus. For completeness we provide the dynamic muscle properties for further important shank muscles (flexor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum longus, and tibialis anterior; n = 1 per muscle). Maximum shortening velocity (normalized to optimal fiber length) of the gastrocnemius is about twice that of soleus, while plantaris showed an intermediate value. The force-velocity relation is similar for gastrocnemius and plantaris but is much more bent for the soleus. Although the muscles vary greatly in their three-dimensional architecture their mean pennation angle and normalized force-length relationships are almost similar. Forces of the muscles were enhanced in the isometric phase following stretching and were depressed following shortening compared to the corresponding isometric forces. While the enhancement was independent of the ramp velocity, the depression was inversely related to the ramp velocity. The lowest effect strength for soleus supports the idea that these effects adapt to muscle function. The careful acquisition of typical dynamical parameters (e.g. force-length and force-velocity relations, force elongation relations of passive components), enhancement and depression effects, and 3D muscle architecture of calf muscles provides valuable comprehensive datasets for e.g. simulations with neuro-muscular models, development of more realistic muscle models, or simulation of muscle packages.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Muscle architectures of GAS, PLA, and SOL of R1 left pelvic limb.Muscle fascicles of GAS medialis and lateralis are shown in light red and yellow, respectively. The proximodistal axis corresponds to the mean force axis of the calf muscles, running from mean muscle origin at the humerus to the insertion at the calcaneus. The corresponding 3D data of the muscle fascicles are provided in the Supporting Information (S2–S4 Datasets).
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pone.0130985.g005: Muscle architectures of GAS, PLA, and SOL of R1 left pelvic limb.Muscle fascicles of GAS medialis and lateralis are shown in light red and yellow, respectively. The proximodistal axis corresponds to the mean force axis of the calf muscles, running from mean muscle origin at the humerus to the insertion at the calcaneus. The corresponding 3D data of the muscle fascicles are provided in the Supporting Information (S2–S4 Datasets).

Mentions: General architectural properties of GAS, PLA, and SOL are listed in Table 3. Spatial coordinates of the fascicles of rabbit R1 are presented in Fig 5. Three dimensional fascicle data including origin and insertion of the GAS, PLA, and SOL of the three animals (R1, R2, R3) are provided in txt-format in the Supporting Information (S1–S12 Datasets). SOL (Fig 5, green fascicles) exhibits simple unipennate muscle architecture while GAS (medialis: light red fascicles; lateralis: yellow fascicles) and PLA (dark red fascicles) show more complex bipennate muscle architectures. For each animal, the mean pennation angles of all three muscles (GAS, PLA, and SOL) were almost similar (Table 3). Differences appear to be about 1–2°, only. In between the different animals, variations were slightly larger. Mean pennation angles in R1 are about 5° larger than in R3. These variations in pennation angles have only small (< 0.02 Fim) impact on the calculation of muscle force. Mean fascicle lengths (lfm) are larger for the heavier animals (R2 and R3). For each specific animal, GAS and SOL exhibit about the same mean fascicle lengths but in general PLA is about 30% shorter.


Three-Dimensional Muscle Architecture and Comprehensive Dynamic Properties of Rabbit Gastrocnemius, Plantaris and Soleus: Input for Simulation Studies.

Siebert T, Leichsenring K, Rode C, Wick C, Stutzig N, Schubert H, Blickhan R, Böl M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Muscle architectures of GAS, PLA, and SOL of R1 left pelvic limb.Muscle fascicles of GAS medialis and lateralis are shown in light red and yellow, respectively. The proximodistal axis corresponds to the mean force axis of the calf muscles, running from mean muscle origin at the humerus to the insertion at the calcaneus. The corresponding 3D data of the muscle fascicles are provided in the Supporting Information (S2–S4 Datasets).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4482742&req=5

pone.0130985.g005: Muscle architectures of GAS, PLA, and SOL of R1 left pelvic limb.Muscle fascicles of GAS medialis and lateralis are shown in light red and yellow, respectively. The proximodistal axis corresponds to the mean force axis of the calf muscles, running from mean muscle origin at the humerus to the insertion at the calcaneus. The corresponding 3D data of the muscle fascicles are provided in the Supporting Information (S2–S4 Datasets).
Mentions: General architectural properties of GAS, PLA, and SOL are listed in Table 3. Spatial coordinates of the fascicles of rabbit R1 are presented in Fig 5. Three dimensional fascicle data including origin and insertion of the GAS, PLA, and SOL of the three animals (R1, R2, R3) are provided in txt-format in the Supporting Information (S1–S12 Datasets). SOL (Fig 5, green fascicles) exhibits simple unipennate muscle architecture while GAS (medialis: light red fascicles; lateralis: yellow fascicles) and PLA (dark red fascicles) show more complex bipennate muscle architectures. For each animal, the mean pennation angles of all three muscles (GAS, PLA, and SOL) were almost similar (Table 3). Differences appear to be about 1–2°, only. In between the different animals, variations were slightly larger. Mean pennation angles in R1 are about 5° larger than in R3. These variations in pennation angles have only small (< 0.02 Fim) impact on the calculation of muscle force. Mean fascicle lengths (lfm) are larger for the heavier animals (R2 and R3). For each specific animal, GAS and SOL exhibit about the same mean fascicle lengths but in general PLA is about 30% shorter.

Bottom Line: Simulation results depend heavily on rough parameter estimates often obtained by scaling of one muscle parameter set.The lowest effect strength for soleus supports the idea that these effects adapt to muscle function.The careful acquisition of typical dynamical parameters (e.g. force-length and force-velocity relations, force elongation relations of passive components), enhancement and depression effects, and 3D muscle architecture of calf muscles provides valuable comprehensive datasets for e.g. simulations with neuro-muscular models, development of more realistic muscle models, or simulation of muscle packages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Sport and Motion Science, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The vastly increasing number of neuro-muscular simulation studies (with increasing numbers of muscles used per simulation) is in sharp contrast to a narrow database of necessary muscle parameters. Simulation results depend heavily on rough parameter estimates often obtained by scaling of one muscle parameter set. However, in vivo muscles differ in their individual properties and architecture. Here we provide a comprehensive dataset of dynamic (n = 6 per muscle) and geometric (three-dimensional architecture, n = 3 per muscle) muscle properties of the rabbit calf muscles gastrocnemius, plantaris, and soleus. For completeness we provide the dynamic muscle properties for further important shank muscles (flexor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum longus, and tibialis anterior; n = 1 per muscle). Maximum shortening velocity (normalized to optimal fiber length) of the gastrocnemius is about twice that of soleus, while plantaris showed an intermediate value. The force-velocity relation is similar for gastrocnemius and plantaris but is much more bent for the soleus. Although the muscles vary greatly in their three-dimensional architecture their mean pennation angle and normalized force-length relationships are almost similar. Forces of the muscles were enhanced in the isometric phase following stretching and were depressed following shortening compared to the corresponding isometric forces. While the enhancement was independent of the ramp velocity, the depression was inversely related to the ramp velocity. The lowest effect strength for soleus supports the idea that these effects adapt to muscle function. The careful acquisition of typical dynamical parameters (e.g. force-length and force-velocity relations, force elongation relations of passive components), enhancement and depression effects, and 3D muscle architecture of calf muscles provides valuable comprehensive datasets for e.g. simulations with neuro-muscular models, development of more realistic muscle models, or simulation of muscle packages.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus