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Three-Dimensional Muscle Architecture and Comprehensive Dynamic Properties of Rabbit Gastrocnemius, Plantaris and Soleus: Input for Simulation Studies.

Siebert T, Leichsenring K, Rode C, Wick C, Stutzig N, Schubert H, Blickhan R, Böl M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Simulation results depend heavily on rough parameter estimates often obtained by scaling of one muscle parameter set.The lowest effect strength for soleus supports the idea that these effects adapt to muscle function.The careful acquisition of typical dynamical parameters (e.g. force-length and force-velocity relations, force elongation relations of passive components), enhancement and depression effects, and 3D muscle architecture of calf muscles provides valuable comprehensive datasets for e.g. simulations with neuro-muscular models, development of more realistic muscle models, or simulation of muscle packages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Sport and Motion Science, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The vastly increasing number of neuro-muscular simulation studies (with increasing numbers of muscles used per simulation) is in sharp contrast to a narrow database of necessary muscle parameters. Simulation results depend heavily on rough parameter estimates often obtained by scaling of one muscle parameter set. However, in vivo muscles differ in their individual properties and architecture. Here we provide a comprehensive dataset of dynamic (n = 6 per muscle) and geometric (three-dimensional architecture, n = 3 per muscle) muscle properties of the rabbit calf muscles gastrocnemius, plantaris, and soleus. For completeness we provide the dynamic muscle properties for further important shank muscles (flexor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum longus, and tibialis anterior; n = 1 per muscle). Maximum shortening velocity (normalized to optimal fiber length) of the gastrocnemius is about twice that of soleus, while plantaris showed an intermediate value. The force-velocity relation is similar for gastrocnemius and plantaris but is much more bent for the soleus. Although the muscles vary greatly in their three-dimensional architecture their mean pennation angle and normalized force-length relationships are almost similar. Forces of the muscles were enhanced in the isometric phase following stretching and were depressed following shortening compared to the corresponding isometric forces. While the enhancement was independent of the ramp velocity, the depression was inversely related to the ramp velocity. The lowest effect strength for soleus supports the idea that these effects adapt to muscle function. The careful acquisition of typical dynamical parameters (e.g. force-length and force-velocity relations, force elongation relations of passive components), enhancement and depression effects, and 3D muscle architecture of calf muscles provides valuable comprehensive datasets for e.g. simulations with neuro-muscular models, development of more realistic muscle models, or simulation of muscle packages.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Force enhancement (FE) and force depression (FD) experiments.Typical experiments are shown for one GAS (m = 14.8 g), SOL (m = 3.3 g), and PLA (m = 7.5 g), respectively. Exemplary isokinetic ramps are depicted for GAS in the top row; numbers without units indicate velocity in mean fascicle lengths per second. FE (difference between black triangles) and FD (difference between white triangles) are the force difference between ramp experiment (black) and isometric reference contraction (grey) determined 500ms (GAS, PLA) and 1300ms (SOL) after the end of the ramp, shown exemplarily for the slowest (0.35 lfm/s) ramp.
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pone.0130985.g004: Force enhancement (FE) and force depression (FD) experiments.Typical experiments are shown for one GAS (m = 14.8 g), SOL (m = 3.3 g), and PLA (m = 7.5 g), respectively. Exemplary isokinetic ramps are depicted for GAS in the top row; numbers without units indicate velocity in mean fascicle lengths per second. FE (difference between black triangles) and FD (difference between white triangles) are the force difference between ramp experiment (black) and isometric reference contraction (grey) determined 500ms (GAS, PLA) and 1300ms (SOL) after the end of the ramp, shown exemplarily for the slowest (0.35 lfm/s) ramp.

Mentions: Forces of GAS, PLA, and SOL were enhanced following stretching and were depressed following shortening compared with the corresponding isometric forces (Table 2, Fig 4). For all muscles, force depression was inversely related to the ramp velocity (Table 2). This effect was pronounced for the SOL. In contrast, force enhancement was independent of ramp velocity. The magnitude of force enhancement increased from GAS (≈ 8% Fim), to SOL (≈ 11% Fim) up to PLA (≈ 17% Fim). At the slowest ramp velocity (0.35 lfm/s), force depression of GAS and PLA (≈ 17.5% Fim) was about two fold that of SOL (9.7% Fim).


Three-Dimensional Muscle Architecture and Comprehensive Dynamic Properties of Rabbit Gastrocnemius, Plantaris and Soleus: Input for Simulation Studies.

Siebert T, Leichsenring K, Rode C, Wick C, Stutzig N, Schubert H, Blickhan R, Böl M - PLoS ONE (2015)

Force enhancement (FE) and force depression (FD) experiments.Typical experiments are shown for one GAS (m = 14.8 g), SOL (m = 3.3 g), and PLA (m = 7.5 g), respectively. Exemplary isokinetic ramps are depicted for GAS in the top row; numbers without units indicate velocity in mean fascicle lengths per second. FE (difference between black triangles) and FD (difference between white triangles) are the force difference between ramp experiment (black) and isometric reference contraction (grey) determined 500ms (GAS, PLA) and 1300ms (SOL) after the end of the ramp, shown exemplarily for the slowest (0.35 lfm/s) ramp.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4482742&req=5

pone.0130985.g004: Force enhancement (FE) and force depression (FD) experiments.Typical experiments are shown for one GAS (m = 14.8 g), SOL (m = 3.3 g), and PLA (m = 7.5 g), respectively. Exemplary isokinetic ramps are depicted for GAS in the top row; numbers without units indicate velocity in mean fascicle lengths per second. FE (difference between black triangles) and FD (difference between white triangles) are the force difference between ramp experiment (black) and isometric reference contraction (grey) determined 500ms (GAS, PLA) and 1300ms (SOL) after the end of the ramp, shown exemplarily for the slowest (0.35 lfm/s) ramp.
Mentions: Forces of GAS, PLA, and SOL were enhanced following stretching and were depressed following shortening compared with the corresponding isometric forces (Table 2, Fig 4). For all muscles, force depression was inversely related to the ramp velocity (Table 2). This effect was pronounced for the SOL. In contrast, force enhancement was independent of ramp velocity. The magnitude of force enhancement increased from GAS (≈ 8% Fim), to SOL (≈ 11% Fim) up to PLA (≈ 17% Fim). At the slowest ramp velocity (0.35 lfm/s), force depression of GAS and PLA (≈ 17.5% Fim) was about two fold that of SOL (9.7% Fim).

Bottom Line: Simulation results depend heavily on rough parameter estimates often obtained by scaling of one muscle parameter set.The lowest effect strength for soleus supports the idea that these effects adapt to muscle function.The careful acquisition of typical dynamical parameters (e.g. force-length and force-velocity relations, force elongation relations of passive components), enhancement and depression effects, and 3D muscle architecture of calf muscles provides valuable comprehensive datasets for e.g. simulations with neuro-muscular models, development of more realistic muscle models, or simulation of muscle packages.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Sport and Motion Science, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The vastly increasing number of neuro-muscular simulation studies (with increasing numbers of muscles used per simulation) is in sharp contrast to a narrow database of necessary muscle parameters. Simulation results depend heavily on rough parameter estimates often obtained by scaling of one muscle parameter set. However, in vivo muscles differ in their individual properties and architecture. Here we provide a comprehensive dataset of dynamic (n = 6 per muscle) and geometric (three-dimensional architecture, n = 3 per muscle) muscle properties of the rabbit calf muscles gastrocnemius, plantaris, and soleus. For completeness we provide the dynamic muscle properties for further important shank muscles (flexor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum longus, and tibialis anterior; n = 1 per muscle). Maximum shortening velocity (normalized to optimal fiber length) of the gastrocnemius is about twice that of soleus, while plantaris showed an intermediate value. The force-velocity relation is similar for gastrocnemius and plantaris but is much more bent for the soleus. Although the muscles vary greatly in their three-dimensional architecture their mean pennation angle and normalized force-length relationships are almost similar. Forces of the muscles were enhanced in the isometric phase following stretching and were depressed following shortening compared to the corresponding isometric forces. While the enhancement was independent of the ramp velocity, the depression was inversely related to the ramp velocity. The lowest effect strength for soleus supports the idea that these effects adapt to muscle function. The careful acquisition of typical dynamical parameters (e.g. force-length and force-velocity relations, force elongation relations of passive components), enhancement and depression effects, and 3D muscle architecture of calf muscles provides valuable comprehensive datasets for e.g. simulations with neuro-muscular models, development of more realistic muscle models, or simulation of muscle packages.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus