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Asynchrony between Host Plant and Insects-Defoliator within a Tritrophic System: The Role of Herbivore Innate Immunity.

Martemyanov VV, Pavlushin SV, Dubovskiy IM, Yushkova YV, Morosov SV, Chernyak EI, Efimov VM, Ruuhola T, Glupov VV - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The effects of asynchrony in the phenology of spring-feeding insect-defoliators and their host plants on insects' fitness, as well as the importance of this effect for the population dynamics of outbreaking species of insects, is a widespread and well-documented phenomenon.We show that a phenological mismatch induced by the delay in the emergence of gypsy moth larvae and following feeding on mature leaves has negative effects on the female pupal weight, on the rate of larval development and on the activity of phenoloxidase in the plasma of haemolymph.This study also reveals some indirect mechanisms of effect related to host plant quality, which operate through the insect innate immune status and affect resistance to both exogenous and endogenous virus.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Insect Pathology, Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia; Biological Institute, National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia.

ABSTRACT
The effects of asynchrony in the phenology of spring-feeding insect-defoliators and their host plants on insects' fitness, as well as the importance of this effect for the population dynamics of outbreaking species of insects, is a widespread and well-documented phenomenon. However, the spreading of this phenomenon through the food chain, and especially those mechanisms operating this spreading, are still unclear. In this paper, we study the effect of seasonally declined leafquality (estimated in terms of phenolics and nitrogen content) on herbivore fitness, immune parameters and resistance against pathogen by using the silver birch Betula pendula--gypsy moth Lymantria dispar--nucleopolyhedrovirus as the tritrophic system. We show that a phenological mismatch induced by the delay in the emergence of gypsy moth larvae and following feeding on mature leaves has negative effects on the female pupal weight, on the rate of larval development and on the activity of phenoloxidase in the plasma of haemolymph. In addition, the larval susceptibility to exogenous nucleopolyhydrovirus infection as well as covert virus activation were both enhanced due to the phenological mismatch. The observed effects of phenological mismatch on insect-baculovirus interaction may partially explain the strong and fast fluctuations in the population dynamics of the gypsy moth that is often observed in the studied part of the defoliator area. This study also reveals some indirect mechanisms of effect related to host plant quality, which operate through the insect innate immune status and affect resistance to both exogenous and endogenous virus.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The effect of mismatch in the egg hatch of L. dispar on (a) the weight of forming pupae (mean±SE), and on (b) the speed of larvae development (mean±SE).The data were pair-wise compared by the post hoc Fisher LSD procedure. The letters above the bar mean the significant differences (at P<0.05) to be compared with the bars abbreviated by the same letters within the bar. Uppercase letters mark the differences within the female group while lowercase letters mark the differences within the male group. The asterisk means the significant differences at P≤0.05 between males and females within one point of mismatch.
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pone.0130988.g003: The effect of mismatch in the egg hatch of L. dispar on (a) the weight of forming pupae (mean±SE), and on (b) the speed of larvae development (mean±SE).The data were pair-wise compared by the post hoc Fisher LSD procedure. The letters above the bar mean the significant differences (at P<0.05) to be compared with the bars abbreviated by the same letters within the bar. Uppercase letters mark the differences within the female group while lowercase letters mark the differences within the male group. The asterisk means the significant differences at P≤0.05 between males and females within one point of mismatch.

Mentions: Both of the tested factors, sex and asynchrony, significantly affected the pupal weight (F1,4 = 340.8, P<0.001 sex, F4,15 = 6.458, P = 0.003 hatching date) and the rate of larvae development (F1,19 = 104.3, P<0.001 sex, F4,16 = 21.94, P<0.001 hatching date), but a significant interaction between these factors was found only for pupal weight (F4,324 = 3.857, P = 0.004) not for development rate (F4,19 = 1.025, P = 0.420). The female pupal weight was significantly decreased when the larval hatching was mismatched 10 days or more: no significant effect was observed after a five-day mismatch in the hatching (Fig 3A). The larval development rate of both sexes, in turn, was decreased after a five-day mismatch in the hatching (Fig 3B). The female larvae were markedly larger than the male larvae and their development time was also longer (Fig 3A and 3B).


Asynchrony between Host Plant and Insects-Defoliator within a Tritrophic System: The Role of Herbivore Innate Immunity.

Martemyanov VV, Pavlushin SV, Dubovskiy IM, Yushkova YV, Morosov SV, Chernyak EI, Efimov VM, Ruuhola T, Glupov VV - PLoS ONE (2015)

The effect of mismatch in the egg hatch of L. dispar on (a) the weight of forming pupae (mean±SE), and on (b) the speed of larvae development (mean±SE).The data were pair-wise compared by the post hoc Fisher LSD procedure. The letters above the bar mean the significant differences (at P<0.05) to be compared with the bars abbreviated by the same letters within the bar. Uppercase letters mark the differences within the female group while lowercase letters mark the differences within the male group. The asterisk means the significant differences at P≤0.05 between males and females within one point of mismatch.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4482610&req=5

pone.0130988.g003: The effect of mismatch in the egg hatch of L. dispar on (a) the weight of forming pupae (mean±SE), and on (b) the speed of larvae development (mean±SE).The data were pair-wise compared by the post hoc Fisher LSD procedure. The letters above the bar mean the significant differences (at P<0.05) to be compared with the bars abbreviated by the same letters within the bar. Uppercase letters mark the differences within the female group while lowercase letters mark the differences within the male group. The asterisk means the significant differences at P≤0.05 between males and females within one point of mismatch.
Mentions: Both of the tested factors, sex and asynchrony, significantly affected the pupal weight (F1,4 = 340.8, P<0.001 sex, F4,15 = 6.458, P = 0.003 hatching date) and the rate of larvae development (F1,19 = 104.3, P<0.001 sex, F4,16 = 21.94, P<0.001 hatching date), but a significant interaction between these factors was found only for pupal weight (F4,324 = 3.857, P = 0.004) not for development rate (F4,19 = 1.025, P = 0.420). The female pupal weight was significantly decreased when the larval hatching was mismatched 10 days or more: no significant effect was observed after a five-day mismatch in the hatching (Fig 3A). The larval development rate of both sexes, in turn, was decreased after a five-day mismatch in the hatching (Fig 3B). The female larvae were markedly larger than the male larvae and their development time was also longer (Fig 3A and 3B).

Bottom Line: The effects of asynchrony in the phenology of spring-feeding insect-defoliators and their host plants on insects' fitness, as well as the importance of this effect for the population dynamics of outbreaking species of insects, is a widespread and well-documented phenomenon.We show that a phenological mismatch induced by the delay in the emergence of gypsy moth larvae and following feeding on mature leaves has negative effects on the female pupal weight, on the rate of larval development and on the activity of phenoloxidase in the plasma of haemolymph.This study also reveals some indirect mechanisms of effect related to host plant quality, which operate through the insect innate immune status and affect resistance to both exogenous and endogenous virus.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Insect Pathology, Institute of Systematics and Ecology of Animals SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia; Biological Institute, National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia.

ABSTRACT
The effects of asynchrony in the phenology of spring-feeding insect-defoliators and their host plants on insects' fitness, as well as the importance of this effect for the population dynamics of outbreaking species of insects, is a widespread and well-documented phenomenon. However, the spreading of this phenomenon through the food chain, and especially those mechanisms operating this spreading, are still unclear. In this paper, we study the effect of seasonally declined leafquality (estimated in terms of phenolics and nitrogen content) on herbivore fitness, immune parameters and resistance against pathogen by using the silver birch Betula pendula--gypsy moth Lymantria dispar--nucleopolyhedrovirus as the tritrophic system. We show that a phenological mismatch induced by the delay in the emergence of gypsy moth larvae and following feeding on mature leaves has negative effects on the female pupal weight, on the rate of larval development and on the activity of phenoloxidase in the plasma of haemolymph. In addition, the larval susceptibility to exogenous nucleopolyhydrovirus infection as well as covert virus activation were both enhanced due to the phenological mismatch. The observed effects of phenological mismatch on insect-baculovirus interaction may partially explain the strong and fast fluctuations in the population dynamics of the gypsy moth that is often observed in the studied part of the defoliator area. This study also reveals some indirect mechanisms of effect related to host plant quality, which operate through the insect innate immune status and affect resistance to both exogenous and endogenous virus.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus