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Viruses Occur Incorporated in Biogenic High-Mg Calcite from Hypersaline Microbial Mats.

De Wit R, Gautret P, Bettarel Y, Roques C, Marlière C, Ramonda M, Nguyen Thanh T, Tran Quang H, Bouvier T - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer analysis revealed that they contain nitrogen and phosphorus in a molar ratio of ~9, which is typical for viruses.Nucleic acid staining revealed that they contain DNA or RNA.In addition, we showed that acid treatment (dissolution of calcite) resulted in release of viruses into suspension and estimated that there were ~15 × 10(9) viruses per g of calcite.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Marine Biodiversity, Exploitation and Conservation (MARBEC),Université de Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, Place Eugène Bataillon, Case 093, 34095, Montpellier, France.

ABSTRACT
Using three different microscopy techniques (epifluorescence, electronic and atomic force microscopy), we showed that high-Mg calcite grains in calcifying microbial mats from the hypersaline lake "La Salada de Chiprana", Spain, contain viruses with a diameter of 50-80 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer analysis revealed that they contain nitrogen and phosphorus in a molar ratio of ~9, which is typical for viruses. Nucleic acid staining revealed that they contain DNA or RNA. As characteristic for hypersaline environments, the concentrations of free and attached viruses were high (>10(10) viruses per g of mat). In addition, we showed that acid treatment (dissolution of calcite) resulted in release of viruses into suspension and estimated that there were ~15 × 10(9) viruses per g of calcite. We suggest that virus-mineral interactions are one of the possible ways for the formation of nano-sized structures often described as "nanobacteria" and that viruses may play a role in initiating calcification.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

TEM image of cross-sections of high-Mg calcite showing apparent polyhedral-like viruses marked v (A) and bacteria marked b (E), and their elemental composition shown for the same fields in (B, C, D) and (F, G, H), respectively.The XEDS maps of nitrogen (B, F), phosphorus (C, G), and calcium (D, H), respectively, showing that viruses and bacteria contain nitrogen and phosphorus, with calcium mainly located in the mineral part of the high-Mg calcite grain (Ca,Mg)CO3.
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pone.0130552.g005: TEM image of cross-sections of high-Mg calcite showing apparent polyhedral-like viruses marked v (A) and bacteria marked b (E), and their elemental composition shown for the same fields in (B, C, D) and (F, G, H), respectively.The XEDS maps of nitrogen (B, F), phosphorus (C, G), and calcium (D, H), respectively, showing that viruses and bacteria contain nitrogen and phosphorus, with calcium mainly located in the mineral part of the high-Mg calcite grain (Ca,Mg)CO3.

Mentions: Fig 5A shows the TEM image of two apparently polyhedral-like viruses imbedded in the high-Mg calcite. Their capsid sizes ranged from 50 to 80 nm (N = 50). Less frequently we also observed bacterial cells incorporated in the mineral grains (Fig 5E). XEDS analysis of viruses and bacteria showed that all of them contained nitrogen and phosphorus (Fig 5B, 5C, 5F, 5G and Fig 6). A one-sided student T comparison of log-converted molar N/P ratios showed highly significant differences (p = 9.70 × 10−7) between bacteria (geometric mean = 21.0, median = 23.3 mol N / mol P) and viruses (geometric mean = 9.25, median = 9.45 mol N / mol P), respectively. In contrast, the mineral high-Mg calcite had very low content of nitrogen and phosphorus.


Viruses Occur Incorporated in Biogenic High-Mg Calcite from Hypersaline Microbial Mats.

De Wit R, Gautret P, Bettarel Y, Roques C, Marlière C, Ramonda M, Nguyen Thanh T, Tran Quang H, Bouvier T - PLoS ONE (2015)

TEM image of cross-sections of high-Mg calcite showing apparent polyhedral-like viruses marked v (A) and bacteria marked b (E), and their elemental composition shown for the same fields in (B, C, D) and (F, G, H), respectively.The XEDS maps of nitrogen (B, F), phosphorus (C, G), and calcium (D, H), respectively, showing that viruses and bacteria contain nitrogen and phosphorus, with calcium mainly located in the mineral part of the high-Mg calcite grain (Ca,Mg)CO3.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4482595&req=5

pone.0130552.g005: TEM image of cross-sections of high-Mg calcite showing apparent polyhedral-like viruses marked v (A) and bacteria marked b (E), and their elemental composition shown for the same fields in (B, C, D) and (F, G, H), respectively.The XEDS maps of nitrogen (B, F), phosphorus (C, G), and calcium (D, H), respectively, showing that viruses and bacteria contain nitrogen and phosphorus, with calcium mainly located in the mineral part of the high-Mg calcite grain (Ca,Mg)CO3.
Mentions: Fig 5A shows the TEM image of two apparently polyhedral-like viruses imbedded in the high-Mg calcite. Their capsid sizes ranged from 50 to 80 nm (N = 50). Less frequently we also observed bacterial cells incorporated in the mineral grains (Fig 5E). XEDS analysis of viruses and bacteria showed that all of them contained nitrogen and phosphorus (Fig 5B, 5C, 5F, 5G and Fig 6). A one-sided student T comparison of log-converted molar N/P ratios showed highly significant differences (p = 9.70 × 10−7) between bacteria (geometric mean = 21.0, median = 23.3 mol N / mol P) and viruses (geometric mean = 9.25, median = 9.45 mol N / mol P), respectively. In contrast, the mineral high-Mg calcite had very low content of nitrogen and phosphorus.

Bottom Line: Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer analysis revealed that they contain nitrogen and phosphorus in a molar ratio of ~9, which is typical for viruses.Nucleic acid staining revealed that they contain DNA or RNA.In addition, we showed that acid treatment (dissolution of calcite) resulted in release of viruses into suspension and estimated that there were ~15 × 10(9) viruses per g of calcite.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Marine Biodiversity, Exploitation and Conservation (MARBEC),Université de Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, Place Eugène Bataillon, Case 093, 34095, Montpellier, France.

ABSTRACT
Using three different microscopy techniques (epifluorescence, electronic and atomic force microscopy), we showed that high-Mg calcite grains in calcifying microbial mats from the hypersaline lake "La Salada de Chiprana", Spain, contain viruses with a diameter of 50-80 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer analysis revealed that they contain nitrogen and phosphorus in a molar ratio of ~9, which is typical for viruses. Nucleic acid staining revealed that they contain DNA or RNA. As characteristic for hypersaline environments, the concentrations of free and attached viruses were high (>10(10) viruses per g of mat). In addition, we showed that acid treatment (dissolution of calcite) resulted in release of viruses into suspension and estimated that there were ~15 × 10(9) viruses per g of calcite. We suggest that virus-mineral interactions are one of the possible ways for the formation of nano-sized structures often described as "nanobacteria" and that viruses may play a role in initiating calcification.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus