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Larvae and Nests of Six Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded.

Bogusch P, Astapenková A, Heneberg P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We also provide first records of their nest cleptoparasites Stelis breviuscula and Stelis ornatula, and the parasitoid Holopyga fastuosa generosa.Thyridanthrax fenestratus formed strong populations in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium, which are both newly recorded hosts for T. fenestratus.The descriptions provided here allow for the first time to identify the larvae of the most widespread central European aculeate hymenopteran reed gall specialists.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Králové, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic.

ABSTRACT
Wetland species of aculeate Hymenoptera are poorly known, even though many of them may serve as diagnostic or flagship species in nature conservation. Here we examined 6,018 galls induced ≥1 year prior their collection by the chloropid flies Lipara spp. The galls were collected at 34 sites in Central Europe. We examined 1,389 nests (4,513 individuals) of nine species, part of which were parasitized by one dipteran and two chrysidid parasitoid species. We describe the nests of seven dominant species and larvae of four species (Pemphredon fabricii, Trypoxylon deceptorium, Hoplitis leucomelana and Hylaeus pectoralis) and two parasitoids (Trichrysis cyanea and Thyridanthrax fenestratus, both in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium). All the species, but H. pectoralis, preferred robust galls at very thin stalks (induced typically by Lipara lucens) over the narrow galls on thick stalks. The larvae of P. fabricii and T. deceptorium resembled strongly their sibling species (Pemphredon lethifer and Trypoxylon attenuatum sensu lato, respectively). The larvae of T. fenestratus showed features different from those previously described. By hatching set of another 10,583 galls induced by Lipara spp. ≥1 year prior their collection, we obtained 4,469 individuals of 14 nesting hymenopteran species, two cleptoparasites, three chrysidid and one dipteran parasitoid. Of these species, four new nesting species have been recorded for the first time in galls induced by Lipara spp.: Chelostoma campanularum, Heriades rubicola, Pseudoanthidium lituratum and Hylaeus incongruus. We also provide first records of their nest cleptoparasites Stelis breviuscula and Stelis ornatula, and the parasitoid Holopyga fastuosa generosa. Thyridanthrax fenestratus formed strong populations in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium, which are both newly recorded hosts for T. fenestratus. The descriptions provided here allow for the first time to identify the larvae of the most widespread central European aculeate hymenopteran reed gall specialists.

No MeSH data available.


Larval characters.A—C—Pemphredon fabricii, A—head, frontal view, B—mandible, C—spiracle, D—F—Trypoxylon deceptorium, D—head, frontal view, E—mandible, F—spiracle, G—I—Hoplitis leucomelana, G—head, frontal view, H—mandible, I—spiracle, J—L—Hylaeus pectoralis, J—head, frontal view, K—mandible, L—spiracle, M—O—Trichrysis cyanea, M—head, frontal view, N—mandible, O—spiracle, P—R—Thyridanthrax fenestratus, P—mouthparts, frontal view, Q—mouthparts, lateral view, R—spiracle. All drawings by P. Bogusch.
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pone.0130802.g005: Larval characters.A—C—Pemphredon fabricii, A—head, frontal view, B—mandible, C—spiracle, D—F—Trypoxylon deceptorium, D—head, frontal view, E—mandible, F—spiracle, G—I—Hoplitis leucomelana, G—head, frontal view, H—mandible, I—spiracle, J—L—Hylaeus pectoralis, J—head, frontal view, K—mandible, L—spiracle, M—O—Trichrysis cyanea, M—head, frontal view, N—mandible, O—spiracle, P—R—Thyridanthrax fenestratus, P—mouthparts, frontal view, Q—mouthparts, lateral view, R—spiracle. All drawings by P. Bogusch.

Mentions: We analyzed mature larvae of four species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata nesting in reed galls induced by Lipara spp., and two parasitoid species found in their nests (Tables 2 and 3). Below, we provide the descriptions of mature larvae, including the photos of whole larvae (Fig 4) and drawings of main determination characters (Fig 5).


Larvae and Nests of Six Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded.

Bogusch P, Astapenková A, Heneberg P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Larval characters.A—C—Pemphredon fabricii, A—head, frontal view, B—mandible, C—spiracle, D—F—Trypoxylon deceptorium, D—head, frontal view, E—mandible, F—spiracle, G—I—Hoplitis leucomelana, G—head, frontal view, H—mandible, I—spiracle, J—L—Hylaeus pectoralis, J—head, frontal view, K—mandible, L—spiracle, M—O—Trichrysis cyanea, M—head, frontal view, N—mandible, O—spiracle, P—R—Thyridanthrax fenestratus, P—mouthparts, frontal view, Q—mouthparts, lateral view, R—spiracle. All drawings by P. Bogusch.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4482587&req=5

pone.0130802.g005: Larval characters.A—C—Pemphredon fabricii, A—head, frontal view, B—mandible, C—spiracle, D—F—Trypoxylon deceptorium, D—head, frontal view, E—mandible, F—spiracle, G—I—Hoplitis leucomelana, G—head, frontal view, H—mandible, I—spiracle, J—L—Hylaeus pectoralis, J—head, frontal view, K—mandible, L—spiracle, M—O—Trichrysis cyanea, M—head, frontal view, N—mandible, O—spiracle, P—R—Thyridanthrax fenestratus, P—mouthparts, frontal view, Q—mouthparts, lateral view, R—spiracle. All drawings by P. Bogusch.
Mentions: We analyzed mature larvae of four species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata nesting in reed galls induced by Lipara spp., and two parasitoid species found in their nests (Tables 2 and 3). Below, we provide the descriptions of mature larvae, including the photos of whole larvae (Fig 4) and drawings of main determination characters (Fig 5).

Bottom Line: We also provide first records of their nest cleptoparasites Stelis breviuscula and Stelis ornatula, and the parasitoid Holopyga fastuosa generosa.Thyridanthrax fenestratus formed strong populations in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium, which are both newly recorded hosts for T. fenestratus.The descriptions provided here allow for the first time to identify the larvae of the most widespread central European aculeate hymenopteran reed gall specialists.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Králové, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic.

ABSTRACT
Wetland species of aculeate Hymenoptera are poorly known, even though many of them may serve as diagnostic or flagship species in nature conservation. Here we examined 6,018 galls induced ≥1 year prior their collection by the chloropid flies Lipara spp. The galls were collected at 34 sites in Central Europe. We examined 1,389 nests (4,513 individuals) of nine species, part of which were parasitized by one dipteran and two chrysidid parasitoid species. We describe the nests of seven dominant species and larvae of four species (Pemphredon fabricii, Trypoxylon deceptorium, Hoplitis leucomelana and Hylaeus pectoralis) and two parasitoids (Trichrysis cyanea and Thyridanthrax fenestratus, both in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium). All the species, but H. pectoralis, preferred robust galls at very thin stalks (induced typically by Lipara lucens) over the narrow galls on thick stalks. The larvae of P. fabricii and T. deceptorium resembled strongly their sibling species (Pemphredon lethifer and Trypoxylon attenuatum sensu lato, respectively). The larvae of T. fenestratus showed features different from those previously described. By hatching set of another 10,583 galls induced by Lipara spp. ≥1 year prior their collection, we obtained 4,469 individuals of 14 nesting hymenopteran species, two cleptoparasites, three chrysidid and one dipteran parasitoid. Of these species, four new nesting species have been recorded for the first time in galls induced by Lipara spp.: Chelostoma campanularum, Heriades rubicola, Pseudoanthidium lituratum and Hylaeus incongruus. We also provide first records of their nest cleptoparasites Stelis breviuscula and Stelis ornatula, and the parasitoid Holopyga fastuosa generosa. Thyridanthrax fenestratus formed strong populations in nests of Pemphredon fabricii and Trypoxylon deceptorium, which are both newly recorded hosts for T. fenestratus. The descriptions provided here allow for the first time to identify the larvae of the most widespread central European aculeate hymenopteran reed gall specialists.

No MeSH data available.