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Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant and anti-coagulant properties of Lactuca sativa (CV. Grand Rapids) plant tissues and cell suspension in rats.

Ismail H, Mirza B - BMC Complement Altern Med (2015)

Bottom Line: Interestingly, the extracts and the cell suspension exudate showed dual inhibition by reducing pain and inflammation.In anticoagulant assay, the coagulation time of aspirin (positive control) and MC extract of leaf was comparable, suggesting strong anti-coagulant effect.Taken together, L. sativa can potentially act as a strong herbal drug due to its multiple pharmaceutical effects and is therefore of interest in drug discovery and development of formulations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Quaid-I-Azam University, 45320, Islamabad, Pakistan. hammadismail5@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been traditionally used for relieving pain, inflammation, stomach problems including indigestion and lack of appetite. Moreover, the therapeutic significance of L. sativa includes its anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotic and antioxidant properties.

Methods: In the present study, the MC (methanol and chloroform; 1:1) and aqueous extracts of seed and leaf along with cell suspension exudate were prepared. These extracts were explored for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant and anticoagulant effects by hot plate analgesic assay; carrageenan induced hind paw edema test, forced swimming test and capillary method for blood clotting respectively in a rat model. The results were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey multiple comparison test.

Results: Interestingly, the extracts and the cell suspension exudate showed dual inhibition by reducing pain and inflammation. The results indicated that the aqueous extracts of leaf exhibited highest analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities followed by leaf MC, cell suspension exudate, seed aqueous and seed MC extracts. The current findings show that aqueous and MC extracts of seed have the least immobility time in the forced swimming test, which could act as an anti-depressant on the central nervous system. The leaf extracts and cell suspension exudate also expressed moderate anti-depressant activities. In anticoagulant assay, the coagulation time of aspirin (positive control) and MC extract of leaf was comparable, suggesting strong anti-coagulant effect. Additionally, no abnormal behavior or lethality was observed in any animal tested.

Conclusion: Taken together, L. sativa can potentially act as a strong herbal drug due to its multiple pharmaceutical effects and is therefore of interest in drug discovery and development of formulations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Graphical representation of anticoagulant assay (Values are expressed in mean ± S.D) where * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 statistically significant as compared to control group
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Fig4: Graphical representation of anticoagulant assay (Values are expressed in mean ± S.D) where * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 statistically significant as compared to control group

Mentions: The hemostatic mechanisms are meant to arrest bleeding at the site of injury by formation of a hemostatic plug; subsequently there is an eventual elimination of the plug when healing is complete. Normal physiology keeps a delicate balance between these processes and the deficiency or exaggeration of any one mechanism leads to hemorrhage or thrombosis. There are various components via platelets, blood vessels, coagulation factors, plasma inhibitors and the fibrinolytic system, which maintain the physiology [17]. The function of the anticoagulant drugs is to inhibit blood clotting, which is the major cause of heart attacks and strokes [26]. Anticoagulant drugs can be used with a number of diseases when there is a high risk of blood clots. Since anti-coagulants are used for the cardiac problems, hence, instead of relying on blood thinners, physicians can shift to herbal medicine. It has been reported that antioxidants can counteract the hematological and blood coagulation disturbances, oxidative stress, and hepatorenal damages [27]. Our report confirms the anti-coagulant effect of L. sativa as it is enriched with the antioxidant constituents and the results are presented in Fig. 4. The mean clotting time of negative control (10 % DMSO) and positive control (Aspirin), which were 54 s and 122 s, respectively, were used as lower and upper limit for the determination of coagulant effect. The most significant activity was shown by the MC leaf extract with clotting time of 110 s. The activity of cell suspension exudate and aqueous extract of leaf was almost similar, representing moderate activity, while the clotting time in seed extracts was less than the negative control indicating their coagulation nature which can be utilized for the treatment of disease like hemophilia.Fig. 4


Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant and anti-coagulant properties of Lactuca sativa (CV. Grand Rapids) plant tissues and cell suspension in rats.

Ismail H, Mirza B - BMC Complement Altern Med (2015)

Graphical representation of anticoagulant assay (Values are expressed in mean ± S.D) where * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 statistically significant as compared to control group
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4482268&req=5

Fig4: Graphical representation of anticoagulant assay (Values are expressed in mean ± S.D) where * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 statistically significant as compared to control group
Mentions: The hemostatic mechanisms are meant to arrest bleeding at the site of injury by formation of a hemostatic plug; subsequently there is an eventual elimination of the plug when healing is complete. Normal physiology keeps a delicate balance between these processes and the deficiency or exaggeration of any one mechanism leads to hemorrhage or thrombosis. There are various components via platelets, blood vessels, coagulation factors, plasma inhibitors and the fibrinolytic system, which maintain the physiology [17]. The function of the anticoagulant drugs is to inhibit blood clotting, which is the major cause of heart attacks and strokes [26]. Anticoagulant drugs can be used with a number of diseases when there is a high risk of blood clots. Since anti-coagulants are used for the cardiac problems, hence, instead of relying on blood thinners, physicians can shift to herbal medicine. It has been reported that antioxidants can counteract the hematological and blood coagulation disturbances, oxidative stress, and hepatorenal damages [27]. Our report confirms the anti-coagulant effect of L. sativa as it is enriched with the antioxidant constituents and the results are presented in Fig. 4. The mean clotting time of negative control (10 % DMSO) and positive control (Aspirin), which were 54 s and 122 s, respectively, were used as lower and upper limit for the determination of coagulant effect. The most significant activity was shown by the MC leaf extract with clotting time of 110 s. The activity of cell suspension exudate and aqueous extract of leaf was almost similar, representing moderate activity, while the clotting time in seed extracts was less than the negative control indicating their coagulation nature which can be utilized for the treatment of disease like hemophilia.Fig. 4

Bottom Line: Interestingly, the extracts and the cell suspension exudate showed dual inhibition by reducing pain and inflammation.In anticoagulant assay, the coagulation time of aspirin (positive control) and MC extract of leaf was comparable, suggesting strong anti-coagulant effect.Taken together, L. sativa can potentially act as a strong herbal drug due to its multiple pharmaceutical effects and is therefore of interest in drug discovery and development of formulations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biochemistry, Quaid-I-Azam University, 45320, Islamabad, Pakistan. hammadismail5@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been traditionally used for relieving pain, inflammation, stomach problems including indigestion and lack of appetite. Moreover, the therapeutic significance of L. sativa includes its anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotic and antioxidant properties.

Methods: In the present study, the MC (methanol and chloroform; 1:1) and aqueous extracts of seed and leaf along with cell suspension exudate were prepared. These extracts were explored for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant and anticoagulant effects by hot plate analgesic assay; carrageenan induced hind paw edema test, forced swimming test and capillary method for blood clotting respectively in a rat model. The results were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey multiple comparison test.

Results: Interestingly, the extracts and the cell suspension exudate showed dual inhibition by reducing pain and inflammation. The results indicated that the aqueous extracts of leaf exhibited highest analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities followed by leaf MC, cell suspension exudate, seed aqueous and seed MC extracts. The current findings show that aqueous and MC extracts of seed have the least immobility time in the forced swimming test, which could act as an anti-depressant on the central nervous system. The leaf extracts and cell suspension exudate also expressed moderate anti-depressant activities. In anticoagulant assay, the coagulation time of aspirin (positive control) and MC extract of leaf was comparable, suggesting strong anti-coagulant effect. Additionally, no abnormal behavior or lethality was observed in any animal tested.

Conclusion: Taken together, L. sativa can potentially act as a strong herbal drug due to its multiple pharmaceutical effects and is therefore of interest in drug discovery and development of formulations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus